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Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 










1991-1992 

Bulletin of Wake Forest University 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/bulletinofwakefo19911992 



New Series April 1991 Volume 86-Number 3 



Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 



Announcements for 

1991-92 

BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published eight times a year in October, March, April, 
May, June, July, August and September by Wake Forest University. Second class postage paid at Winston- 
Salem, NC, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the Director of 
Admissions, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. 



The Academic Calendar 



Fall Semester 1991 



August 


22 


August 


22-27 


August 


24 


August 


24-26 


August 


25 


August 


26, 27 


August 


27 


August 


28 


September 


10 


September 


24 


October 


11 


October 


18 


November 


27- 


December 1 


December 


2 


December 


6 


December 


9-11 


December 


12 


December 


13, 14 



1991 



Thursday 

Thursday- 
Tuesday 
Saturday 

Saturday- 
Monday 
Sunday 

Monday, 
Tuesday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Tuesday 

Tuesday 

Friday 

Friday 

Wednesday- 
Sunday 

Monday 

Friday 

Monday- 
Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday, 
Saturday 



Residence halls open at 8 a.m. for 

first-year students 
Orientation for first-year students 

Residence halls open at 10 a.m. 

for transfer students 
Orientation for transfer students 

Residence halls open at noon for 

returning students 
Registration for all students 

Opening Convocation* 

Classes begin 

Last day to add courses 

Last day to drop courses 

Fall holiday 

Midterm grades due 

Thanksgiving recess 
Classes resume 
Classes end 
Examinations 

Reading day 
Examinations 



JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


FEBRUARY 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 


MARCH 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


APRIL 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 


MAY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


AUGUST 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


SEPTEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


DECEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 31 



*Subject to change 



December 


16, 17 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


Examinations 


December 


18- 


Wednesday- 


Christmas recess 


January 


12 


Sunday 








Spring Semester 1992 


January 


12 


Sunday 


Residence halls open at noon 


January 


13 


Monday 


Validation of registration 
for all students 


January 


14 


Tuesday 


Classes begin 


January 


20 


Monday 


Martin Luther King Jr. Day 
no classes 


January 


28 


Tuesday 


Last day to add courses 


February 


(date to be announced) 


Founders' Day Convocation 


February 


11 


Tuesday 


Last day to drop courses 


March 


6 


Friday 


Midterm grades due 


March 


7-15 


Saturday- 
Sunday 


Spring recess 


March 


16 


Monday 


Classes resume 


April 


17 


Good Friday 


Holiday 


May 


1 


Friday 


Classes end 


May 


4-6 


Monday- 
Wednesday 


Examinations 


May 


7 


Thursday 


Reading day 


May 


8,9 


Friday, 
Saturday 


Examinations 


May 


11, 12 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


Examinations 


May 


17 


Sunday 


Baccalaureate 


May 


18 


Monday 


Commencement 



1992 



JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


FEBRUARY 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 


MARCH 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


APRIL 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 


MAY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


AUGUST 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 


SEPTEMBER 

5 M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 


DECEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 



The Bulletin 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 8 

Buildings and Grounds 9 

Computer Center 10 

Libraries 12 

Recognition and Accreditation 13 

The Undergraduate Schools 14 

Wake Forest College 15 

Statement of Purpose 15 

History and Development 17 

Student Life 23 

Student Government 23 

Student Union 25 

Resident Student Association 25 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 25 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 26 

Academic Awards and Competitions 26 

Intramural Athletics 27 

Intercollegiate Athletics 28 

Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps 28 

Religious Activities 28 

Cultural Activities 29 

Career Planning and Placement 30 

University Counseling Center 30 

Learning Assistance Program 31 

Student Health Service 31 

Health Education Program 31 

Office of Minority Affairs 31 

Procedures 33 

Admission 33 

Application 33 

Early Decision 34 

Admission of Handicapped Students 34 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 35 

Admission of Transfer Students 35 

Expenses 35 

Tuition 36 

Room Charges 36 

Food Services 36 

Other Charges 36 

Refunds 37 

Housing 38 

Academic Calendar 38 



Orientation and Advising 38 

Registration 38 

Classification 39 

Class Attendance 39 

Auditing Courses 40 

Dropping a Course 40 

Withdrawal from the College 40 

Examinations 41 

Grading 41 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 42 

Dean's List 42 

Graduation Distinctions 42 

Repetition of Courses 42 

Probation 42 

Requirements for Continuation 43 

Requirements for Readmission 44 

Summer Study 44 

Transfer Credit 45 

Scholarships and Loans 46 

Scholarships 46 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 56 

Exchange Scholarships 58 

Loans 58 

Concessions 59 

Other Financial Aid 60 

Special Programs 61 

Honors Study 61 

Open Curriculum 61 

Study at Salem College 61 

International Studies 62 

Office of International Studies 62 

International Students 62 

Residential Language Centers 62 

International Studies House 62 

Foreign Area Studies 62 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 62 

London 62 

Venice 63 

France 63 

Spain 63 

Institute of European Studies 63 

China 63 

Japan 64 

USSR 64 

Experiment in International Living 64 



Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 64 

Requirements for Degrees 65 

Degrees Offered 65 

General Requirements 65 

Basic Requirements 66 

Divisional Requirements 66 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 67 

Proficiency in the Use of English 67 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 68 

Declaring a Major 68 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 69 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 69 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 69 

Minors 69 

Interdisciplinary Minors 70 

Foreign Area Studies 71 

Senior Testing 72 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 72 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 73 

Degrees in Microbiology 73 

Degrees in Dentistry 73 

Degrees in Engineering 74 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 74 

Courses of Instruction— Wake Forest College 75 

Anthropology 75 

Art 78 

Asian Studies 82 

Biology 84 

Chemistry 90 

Classical Languages 92 

Economics 96 

Education 100 

English 107 

German and Russian 112 

Health and Sport Science 115 

History 120 

Humanities 126 

Interdisciplinary Honors 130 

Mathematics and Computer Science 132 

Military Science 138 

Music 140 

Natural Sciences 147 

Philosophy 148 

Physics 151 

Politics 154 



Psychology 160 

Religion 164 

Romance Languages 171 

Sociology 182 

Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 186 

School of Business and Accountancy 193 

Mission 193 

Objectives 193 

Admission 194 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 194 

Requirements for Continuation 195 

Requirements for Graduation 195 

Senior Honors Program 195 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 196 

Courses of Instruction 196 

Business 196 

Accountancy 199 

Overseas Courses 201 

Degrees Conferred 206 

AROTC Graduates 217 

Honor Societies 218 

Enrollment 220 

The Board of Trustees 223 

The Board of Visitors 225 

School of Business and Accountancy Advisory Council 227 

The Administration 228 

The Undergraduate Faculties 239 

Emeriti 259 

The Committees of the Faculty 263 

Index 268 



The University 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning and 
professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of community and 
fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school 
opened its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as prin- 
cipal. It was located in the forest of Wake County, North Carolina, on the plantation 
of Calvin Jones, near which the village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of 
higher learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 
1894, when the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded 
in 1902, offered a two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was 
moved from the town of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the 
North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine in honor of the benefactor who made possible the move and expansion 
to a full four-year program. In 1942, Wake Forest admitted women as regular 
undergraduate students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948, and for over two 
decades offered an undergraduate program of study in business. In 1969, the 
undergraduate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accoun- 
tancy and the Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time 
the Babcock Graduate School of Management was established. In 1980, the 
undergraduate program in business and accountancy was reconstituted as the School 
of Business and Accountancy. The Division of Graduate Studies was established in 
1961. It is now organized as the Graduate School and encompasses advanced work 
in the arts and sciences on both the Reynolda and Hawthorne campuses in Winston- 
Salem. The summer session was inaugurated in 1921. 

In 1946, the Trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate 
the non-medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem, where the School of 
Medicine was already established. The late Charles H. Babcock and his wife, the late 
Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and building funds were received 
from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first fourteen buildings were erected 
in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956 the College moved 
all operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town of Wake Forest to the 
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

The decade that followed was the College's most expansive, and in 1967, its 
augmented character was recognized by the change in name to Wake Forest Univer- 
sity. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 5,000. Governance 
remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for each of the six 
schools of the University is augmented by Boards of Visitors for the undergraduate 
schools and the Graduate School, the School of Law, the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management, and the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and by the Advisory 
Council for the School of Business and Accountancy. A joint board of University 



Trustees and Trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is responsible for the 
Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the medical school. Alumni and 
parents' organizations are active at Wake Forest, and support by the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation and other foundations and corporations is strong and continuing. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part 
of the school's heritage. Wake Forest's founders proposed to establish an institution 
that would provide education under Christian influences. Wake Forest and the 
Convention have a fraternal, voluntary relationship under which Wake Forest is 
autonomous in governance. The University is an associate member of the Conven- 
tion's Council on Christian Higher Education. Wake Forest receives some financial 
and intangible support from Convention-affiliated churches. 

The College, School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Graduate School of 
Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the Reynolda 
Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is about 
four miles away, near the city's downtown on what is known as the Hawthorne 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, 
at Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the 
baccalaureate degree. The School of Business and Accountancy offers courses of study 
leading to the baccalaureate in business and accountancy. The School of Law offers 
the juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, the master 
of business administration degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine offers, through the Graduate School, programs 
leading to the master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in the basic medical 
sciences. The Graduate School confers the master of arts, master of arts in educa- 
tion, master of arts in liberal studies, and master of science degrees in the arts and 
sciences and the doctor of philosophy degree in biology, chemistry, and physics. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 340 acres; its 
physical plant consists of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified Georgian 
architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and limestone. 
The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including Reynolda 
Woods, Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the campus. The 
Graylyn Estate, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel is named in memory of the first president of the College. Its main audi- 
torium seats 2,300 and is also the home of the Wake Forest Baptist Church. The Wait 
Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon, an instrument of forty- 
eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly Wingate, 
houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplaincy and the 
Wake Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, houses most of the 
administrative offices for the Reynolda Campus as well as the Computer and Micro- 
computer Centers. The Benson University Center is the central hub for student activities 
and events on campus. The Z. Smith Reynolds Library houses the main collection of 
books and documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open 



10 



stacks, with a capacity for over 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms 
for study and some academic offices. The Department of Economics is also in the library. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry department. 
Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special research facilities. 
The Olin Physical Laboratory is a new facility for the physics department. Harold W. Trib- 
ble Hall accommodates the humanities and social science departments and has a cur- 
riculum materials center, an honors seminar room, a philosophy library and seminar 
room, and a larger lecture area, DeTamble Auditorium, with an adjacent exhibition gallery. 
The Museum of Anthropology houses the anthropology department. Instruction in 
business, accountancy, and mathematics is carried out in Charles H. Babcock Hall, which 
also houses the Babcock Graduate School of Management. The School of Law occupies 
Guy T Carswell Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the func- 
tions of studio art, theatre, musical performances, and instruction in art history, drama, 
and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art wing are 
spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along with a smaller 
gallery and classrooms. In the theatre wing are design and production areas and two 
technically complete theatres, the larger of traditional proscenium design and the smaller 
for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains Brendle Hall for concerts 
and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and groups, and the offices 
of the music department. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and sport 
science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the Department 
of Health and Sport Science and for military science. Adjacent are tennis courts, sports 
fields, the Campus Stadium, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center for inter- 
collegiate athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing choices available to students. 
There are three residence halls which house only male students: Taylor House, Palmer, 
and Piccolo Halls. Three residence halls house only female students: Bostwick, Babcock, 
and Efird Halls. Huffman House, Davis House, Kitchin House, Poteat House, Later Hall, 
Johnson Hall, and South Hall are coeducational by floor or wing. First-year students live 
in Taylor, Kitchin, Davis, Bostwick, South, and Johnson. Upperclass students may choose 
to live in one of a variety of theme houses including the French House, Wake Radio House, 
German House, Russian House, Italian House, International Studies House, or others which 
are currently being developed. Student housing is also available in the townhouse apart- 
ments and several small houses owned by the University. On the edge of the main 
campus are apartments for faculty and staff as well as graduate and married students. 

Computer Center 

The Computer Center supports the instructional, research, and administrative needs 
of the University with three central site computers. A Hewlett Packard 3000 Series 70 
system, used by the administration, has eight million bytes of memory and 1,142 million 
bytes of disk storage. The Prime 4150 is used primarily for instruction and research. 
It has 24 million bytes of memory and 1,840 million bytes of disk storage. A more 



11 



recent acquisition, an AT&T 3B15/401 with 16 million bytes of memory and 1,340 million 
bytes of disk storage, provides a UNIX operating environment. 

Computer languages available for academic computing include FORTRAN, 
FORTRAN77, BASIC, COBOL, C, Assembler, and Pascal. Statistical packages such as 
SAS, SPSSX, BMDE Minitab, and TSP can be used for data analysis, forecasting, and 
financial modeling. Also available is the ORACLE relational database management 
system, which is compatible with industry and ANSI standards. Other software 
packages, TELLAGRAF, DISSPLA, and SAS/GRAPH, provide powerful graphics 
systems on the Prime. A graphics workstation with TELLAGRAF, DISSPLA, Harvard 
Graphics, LOTUS 1-2-3, and SIMSCRIPT/SIMGRAPH, a simulation and modeling 
package, is available. The workstation includes a six-pen plotter and a Polaroid palette 
for making prints or slides of the screen contents. 

In addition to the facilities at the central Computer Center, there are other computer 
systems on campus and connections to them from the Computer Center. Fibre optic 
cable links seven academic buildings to an AT&T Information Systems Network (ISN) 
in the Computer Center, through which the University's minicomputers are networked 
with an Ethernet connection. The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science 
operates a local area network which includes several Sun workstations and Apple Macin- 
tosh microcomputers; the Departments of Physics and Chemistry share two Convex 
mini supercomputers. 

A data link with the Bowman Gray School of Medicine provides a microwave con- 
nection to the North Carolina Computer Network, the North Carolina Educational Com- 
puting Services (UNC-ECS), and a Cray supercomputer at the North Carolina Microelec- 
tronics Center. Through these connections, Wake Forest is on the Internet, which 
provides electronic mail and remote login and file transfer between Wake Forest and 
other universities worldwide, and direct access to other networks such as BITNET and 
NSFNET. 

Wake Forest is a member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social 
Research (ICPSR) located at the University of Michigan. Membership in ICPSR pro- 
vides faculty and students with access to a large library of data files, including public 
opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial data, and complete census data. Sum- 
mer programs at the University of Michigan also are available through ICPSR. Wake 
Forest is also a member of the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking 
(CREN) and EDUCOM. 

Four microcomputer labs are available for general student use. Each lab has a com- 
bination of Apple Macintosh and Zenith computers, a dot-matrix printer, and a letter- 
quality printer, all connected via an Apple Talk network. The labs are located in Poteat 
residence hall, Luter residence hall, Wingate Hall, and in an area called "Vegas" be- 
tween Johnson and Bostwick residence halls. Poteat, Luter, and Vegas are open 24 hours 
a day. Printers are available in the Student Union and the Computer Center. Some 
individual departments on campus have their own microcomputer clusters for their 
major students, containing software specific to their discipline. 

A physically separate but integral part of the Computer Center is the Microcomputer 
Center. Through the Microcomputer Center, students, faculty and staff may buy micro- 
computers at substantial educational discounts. The staff of the Microcomputer Center 



12 



also provides service for the machines they sell, advice on purchasing machines and 
software, and classes in the use of major software packages. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support instruction and reseach at the 
undergraduate level and in each of the disciplines in which a graduate degree is 
offered. An endowment provided by a substantial gift from the Mary Reynolds 
Babcock Foundation and another from the late Nancy Reynolds have been assigned 
to the sustained expansion and development of library resources, especially for the 
support of the graduate program. The libraries of the University hold membership 
in the Association of Southeastern Research Libraries. 

The library collections total 1,126,595 volumes. Of these, 874,976 constitute the 
general collection in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, 117,118 are housed in the School 
of Law, 113,464 in the library of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and 21,037 
in the library of the Babcock Graduate School of Management. Subscriptions to 18,174 
periodicals and serials, largely of scholarly content, are maintained by the four libraries 
of the University. The holdings of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library also include 35,115 
reels of microfilm, 629,525 pieces of microcards, microprint, and microfiche, and 89,374 
volumes of United States government publications. 

Special collections in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include the Rare Books 
Collection, the Baptist Historical Collection, and the Artom Collection (a clipping 
file of national and international events from the post-World War II period through 
1989). 

The Rare Books Collection, greatly enhanced by the donation of the collection of 
rare and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, emphasizes American and British 
authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Among such collections 
are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William Butler Yeats and T S. Eliot. There 
is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. The Ethel Taylor Crittenden Baptist 
Historical Collection is housed in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. It contains signifi- 
cant books, periodicals, manuscripts and church records relating to North Carolina 
Baptists, as well as a collection of the personal papers of prominent ministers, 
educators, and government officials. The Wake Forest College/University Archive is 
maintained in this area. 

The Reference Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides several useful 
services for the University community. Through a variety of vendors, reference 
librarians conduct on-line database searches from any of several hundred data files. 
Interlibrary loan service is also available for Wake Forest graduate students, faculty, 
and staff. Books, photocopies and microform materials can be borrowed at no charge. 
The reference staff oversees the operation of an Omnifax telefacsimile machine capable 
of sending and receiving printed data worldwide. Reference librarians provide a variety 
of instructional services including an annual freshman orientation program, presen- 
tations to individual classes, general tours of the library, and assistance with indepen- 
dent and directed studies. 

The Z. Smith Reynolds Library is being renovated. An addition of 53,000 square 
feet to the rear of the library will increase the library's capacity by more than 40 per- 



13 



cent. Named in honor of Edwin Graves Wilson, the four-story addition will be con- 
nected to the library building by a glassed-in conservatory and skywalks. The addi- 
tion will house many of the electronic information tools used for current research, 
including a center for media and a microcomputer facility. The new addition, as well 
as a redesign and relandscaping of the main entrance to the library, is scheduled 
for completion by fall 1991. 

Recognition and Accreditation 

Wake Forest College was first accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the regional accrediting agency, in 1921. The re accreditation of 1965 
included the master's and doctoral degree programs in the Division of Graduate 
Studies. The University's accreditation was last reaffirmed in December 1987. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education 
of the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Associa- 
tion of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council 
of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar 
Association and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina 
State Bar. The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the School of Business 
and Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of 
Business. The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education degree 
is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many of the major institutional organiza- 
tions and associations at the national, regional, and statewide levels, including the 
following: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, 
the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, the Council of 
Graduate Schools in the United States, the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, the Council of Southern Graduate 
Schools, the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities, and the North 
Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. In addition, many 
offices of the University are members of associations which focus on particular aspects 
of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities, professional 
fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. There is 
an active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on campus. 



14 



The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest 
College and the School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools 
are governed by the Board of Trustees, the University administration, and by their 
respective faculties. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by the 
president and trustees to the provost, who is the chief academic officer of the Univer- 
sity. Collaborating with the provost is the associate provost. The deans of the schools 
report to the provost and are responsible for academic planning and administration 
for their schools. Collaborating with the dean of Wake Forest College are three associate 
deans. 

The vice president for student life and instructional resources and the dean of stu- 
dent services coordinate student services. Other officers in the area of student ser- 
vices are the director of residence life and housing and the director of the Benson 
University Center, who direct residential, social, and cultural life with the assistance 
of a professional staff; and the directors of the Student Health Service and the Univer- 
sity Counseling Center. A list of administrative officers is found in this bulletin begin- 
ning on page 228. In many administrative areas, responsibility is shared or advice 
is given by the faculty committees listed in this bulletin beginning on page 263. 




15 

Wake Forest College 

Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake Forest 
University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, the University 
carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for personal enrichment, 
enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character 
of the College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evaluates 
its success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of the 
school's decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Purpose 

Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 

Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the 
liberal arts and in graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness 
in its pursuit of its mission derives from its private, coeducational, and 
residential character; its size and location; and its Baptist affiliation. Each 
of these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique character of 
the institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two 
undergraduate institutions, Wake Forest College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy; the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the 
School of Law, the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the ideals of liberal learn- 
ing, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; teaching 
the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human knowledge; 
developing critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious values; 
advancing the frontiers of knowledge through in-depth study and research; 
and applying and using knowledge in the service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and 
a half; this means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge 
and achievement, as distinguished from education that is technical or 
narrowly vocational. It seeks to encourage habits of mind that ask "why," 
that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that attempt to understand 
and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity and grapple 
with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has 
by far the largest student body in the University, and its function is central 
to the University's larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most 
singularly focused on learning for its own sake; they therefore serve as 
exemplars of specific academic values in the life of the University. 



16 



Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide 
professional training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary 
mission of liberal arts education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the con- 
viction that the humane values embodied in the liberal arts are also cen- 
trally relevant to the professions. Professional education at Wake Forest is 
characterized by a commitment to ethical and other professional ideals that 
transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional schools 
are dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, 
they are specifically committed to the application of knowledge to solving 
concrete problems of human beings. They are strengthened by values and 
goals which they share with the College and Graduate School, and the pro- 
fessional schools enhance the work of these schools and the University as 
a whole by serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision- 
making authority lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than 
in a public body. "Funded to a large extent from private sources of sup- 
port, [Wake Forest] is determined to chart its own course in the pursuit 
of its goals. As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate together' per- 
sons of both sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds— racial, ethnic, 
religious, geographical, socio-economic, and cultural .... Its residential 
features are conducive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of 
co-curricular activities. It has made a conscious choice to remain small in 
overall size; it takes pride in being able to function as a community rather 
than a conglomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North Carolina 
engenders an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically 
North Carolinian .... As it seeks further to broaden its constituency and 
to receive national recognition, it is also finding ways to maintain the ethos 
associated with its regional roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than 
a century and a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis 
for its mission and purpose, enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands 
of ministers and laypeople for enlightened leadership in their churches and 
communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, this religious tradi- 
tion gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and branches 
that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Bap- 
tist insistence on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy 
has helped to protect the University from interference and domination by 
outside interests, whether these be commercial, governmental, or 
ecclesiastical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed truth enables a strong 
religious critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation are put 
under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest 
encourages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the Univer- 
sity will be ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must 
encompass perspectives other than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks 
to maintain and invigorate what is noblest in its religious heritage. 



17 



History and Development 

Since 1834 Wake Forest College has persevered— sometimes barely— through wars, 
economic crises, and controversy. In spite of these difficulties, perhaps because of 
them, the College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: tenacity, 
independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. 

That these qualities have often been passed along to Wake Forest's students is 
evident in the lives many have led. That these characteristics have served the school 
well is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the nation's 
significant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is 
today and appreciating the process through which it developed. 

The founding of Wake Forest College in 1834 was one manifestation of the intellec- 
tual and humanitarian reform movement in North Carolina and the nation during 
the 1830s. The beginnings of the College and the formation of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina were closely interwoven: a leading motive for the 
organization of the Convention was that it serve as an agency for establishing an 
institution that would provide education under Christian influences. 

The leaders in the movement for Convention and College were ministers and 
laymen from diverse backgrounds: Martin Ross, a North Carolinian; Thomas 
Meredith, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania; and Samuel Wait, a graduate 
of Columbian College in Washington, DC. The inspiration of Ross, the scholarship 
of Meredith, and the leadership of Wait combined to lead the Baptists of North 
Carolina into the formation of the Baptist State Convention on March 26, 1830. Wait 
was appointed as the Convention's agent to explain to churches, associations, and 
others the need for a college to provide "an education in the liberal arts in fields 
requisite for gentlemen." 

For nearly three years, Wait traveled over the state in his wagon, speaking to a 
large number of the approximately 15,000 Baptists who lived in the Piedmont and 
coastal counties. Perhaps as many as one half opposed missions, education, and 
other benevolences; but after two years of educational canvassing, Wait reported 
enough sentiment in favor of the program of the Convention to proceed. 

A 600-acre plantation, located sixteen miles north of Raleigh, was purchased from 
Calvin Jones in 1832 for $2,000, and the North Carolina Legislature was asked to 
grant a charter for a literary institution based on the manual labor principle. The 
lobbying of opponents, both Baptist and non-Baptist, was effective; only the tie- 
breaking vote of William D. Moseley, speaker of the Senate and a graduate of the 
University of North Carolina, secured passage of the charter-granting bill. It was 
a meager charter, subject to various restrictions and limited to a period of twenty 
years, but the birth of Wake Forest had been achieved. Its subsequent growth would 
be the result of creative adjustments and successful responses to a series of other 
challenges. 

After his successful three-year canvass of the state, Samuel Wait was elected prin- 
cipal of the new institution. Sixteen students registered on February 3, 1834; before 
the end of the year seventy-two had enrolled. The manual labor principle, adopted 



18 



as a partial means of financing the institution, was abandoned after five years, and 
the school was rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College. 

The economic crisis of 1837 had such an adverse effect that support for the Col- 
lege and student enrollment steadily declined; only a loan of $10,000 from the State 
Literary Fund in 1841 prevented bankruptcy. During these years of arduous strug- 
gle to keep the College alive, President Wait exhausted his physical strength and 
contracted an illness which forced him to resign the presidency in 1845. 

William Hooper succeeded Wait, and the prospects of the College became brighter. 
Hooper, a grandson of one of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, had received his education at the University of North Carolina. As 
a native North Carolinian with family connections extending over several genera- 
tions, he was able to mobilize public opinion in support of the College. 

After Hooper's resignation, the Trustees elected to the presidency Professor of 
Mathematics John B. White, a graduate of Brown University. Since the mortgages 
on the physical facilities had been paid during Hooper's tenure, fund-raising efforts 
during President White's administration could be concentrated on increasing the 
College endowment. The Trustees authorized a capital campaign and selected as 
its leader Washington Manly Wingate, an 1849 graduate who within a year and a 
half raised approximately $33,000. 

But the temper of the times was not suited to leadership by a Northerner, and 
President White resigned in 1854. The Trustees chose as his successor Wingate, then 
twenty-six years old and the first alumnus of the College to serve as president. Under 
his vigorous leadership, which spanned nearly three decades, the quality of students 
improved and new faculty members were added. During the first eight years of 
Wingate's administration, sixty-six students graduated— more than half of the total 
graduated during the first twenty-three years in the life of the College. In 1857 Presi- 
dent Wingate launched a campaign to produce an additional endowment of $50,000, 
over one half of which was raised in a single evening during the 1857 meeting of 
the Convention. 

This period of growth and expansion was cut short by the division of the nation 
in 1861. The Conscription Act of 1863 did not exempt students, and for three years 
of the Civil War, the College suspended operations. The buildings were used brief- 
ly for a girls' school; after 1863 the Confederate government used College facilities 
as a military hospital. 

Following Sherman's march through the South and Lee's surrender at Appomattox, 
a peace of desolation pervaded the region. Supporters of Wake Forest surveyed what 
remained: College buildings, now leaky and in poor repair; approximately $11,700 
from a pre-war endowment of $100,000; the former president and faculty; and a loyal 
group of Trustees. There was also something else: an indomitable spirit of determina- 
tion that Wake Forest should emerge from the wreck of the war and fulfill its mission. 

The needs of the College were great and financial prospects poor, but in November 
1865, barely six months after the end of the war, nine members of the Board of 
Trustees, acting with unwarranted courage, authorized the resumption of classes. 
Wingate was persuaded to resume the presidency, and on January 15, 1866, fifty- 
one students enrolled. The number increased as the South and its economy slowly 
recovered. 



19 



President Wingate realized that the people of North Carolina had to be awakened 
to the need for education in the renascent South, and that they must be persuaded 
that Wake Forest could help serve that need. To launch this campaign/ a Baptist- 
sponsored, statewide educational convention was held in Raleigh, but before funds 
could be collected, the financial crisis of 1873 ended all immediate hope for endow- 
ment. The failure of the 1873-74 fund-raising campaign placed the College in a 
precarious position. The triple encumbrances of war, reconstruction, and financial panic 
made it evident that little money could be raised in North Carolina. The Committee 
on Endowment of the Board of Trustees appointed James S. Purefoy, a local mer- 
chant and Baptist minister, as agent to solicit funds in the Northern states for con- 
tinued operation of the College. While serving as treasurer of the Board before the 
war, he had salvaged $11,700 from the pre-war endowment of $100,000 by persuading 
the Trustees to invest half of the endowment in state bonds. After two years of unrelent- 
ing and often discouraging labor, without remuneration, he placed in the hands of 
the Trustees the sum of $9,200. 

It was also in the bleak days of financial uncertainty that a Wake Forest student, 
James W. Denmark, proposed and founded the first college student loan fund in the 
United States. A Confederate veteran, Denmark had worked six years to accumulate 
enough money for his own college expenses. Soon after entering Wake Forest in 1871 
he realized that many students had the same great financial need. From his meager 
funds he spent five dollars for postcards and wrote to college presidents across the 
country asking how their loan funds were organized. When he found that the colleges 
had none, he enlisted the support of faculty and students at Wake Forest and in 1877 
persuaded the Legislature to charter the North Carolina Baptist Student Loan Fund. 
Now known as the James W. Denmark Loan Fund, it is the oldest college student 
loan fund in the United States and has assets of $325,000 to serve the needs of students 
according to the purposes of its founder. 

By the close of President Wingate's second administration in 1879, the College had 
been successfully revived. The endowment had been increased and new construc- 
tion had begun. Perhaps the greatest service President Wingate rendered was bring- 
ing to the College a faculty of highly qualified scholars who served the College with 
distinction and dedication over many years. Among them were Professors William 
G. Simmons (1855-88), William Royall (1859-70; 1880-92), William Bailey Royall 
(1866-1928), Luther Rice Mills (1867-1907), and Charles Elisha Taylor (1870-1915), who 
served as president from 1884 to 1905. Two other scholars who became tutors or adjunct 
professors in the last year of President Wingate's adrninistration were also destined 
to play important roles in the life of the College: Needham Y. Gulley, who established 
the School of Law in 1894 and served as its first dean for thirty-six years, and biologist 
William Louis Poteat, who served the College for fifty years, twenty-two of them as 
president. 

The adrninistration of President Thomas Henderson Pritchard, which followed that 
of President Wingate, was brief and served principally to further Wingate's efforts to 
persuade Baptists and other North Carolinians to improve the deplorable condition of 
education in the state. The second alumnus of the College to serve as president, Prit- 
chard was an eloquent speaker whose prominent leadership among Baptists increased 
the patronage of the College and improved its image among its constituency. 



20 



Charles Elisha Taylor, whom President Wirtgate had brought to the faculty in 1880, 
was elected in 1884 to serve as the sixth president. 

Taylor's administration from 1884 to 1905 brought enrichment of the academic 
program in a variety of ways. Academic departments were increased from eight to 
thirteen, and the size of the faculty more than doubled. Two new schools were added: 
the School of Law in 1894 and the School of Medicine in 1902. Progress in other 
areas included the addition of buildings and the landscaping of the campus. Over 
400 trees were planted, making Magnolia grandiflora almost synonymous with the 
Wake Forest campus. 

President Taylor was succeeded by William Louis Poteat. Affectionately known 
as "Doctor Billy" to students during and after his twenty-two-year administration, 
he continued to promote the general growth of all areas of College life. Special em- 
phasis was placed on development in the sciences, reflecting in part the interests 
of the president and in part the need to enrich the pre-medical training required 
by the new School of Medicine. 

As student enrollment increased from 313 in 1905 to 742 in 1927, there was a 
corresponding increase in the size of the faculty. Registration in religion, English, 
education, and the social sciences required more administrative direction, and a dean 
and a registrar were employed along with a library staff. Propelled by the trend of 
the other colleges in the state, Wake Forest also gave more attention to sports and 
achieved an envied reputation in baseball and football. Also notable during Presi- 
dent Poteat's administration was the continued growth of the endowment. 

Beyond these significant material advances, President Poteat brought distinction 
in the form of state and national recognition. A devout Christian, an eloquent speaker, 
and an accomplished scholar, he became a national leader in education and pro- 
bably the foremost Baptist layman in the state. As a distinguished scientist, he was 
among the first to introduce the theory of evolution to his biology classes. The Chris- 
tian commitment in his personal and public life enabled him to defend successfully 
his views on evolution before the Baptist State Convention in 1922, in a major vic- 
tory for academic freedom that attracted nationwide attention. Through his influence 
and that of Wake Forest alumni who supported his view, the North Carolina 
Legislature refused to follow other Southern states in the passage of anti-evolution 
laws in the 1920s. 

During the administration of Poteat's successor, Francis Pendleton Gaines 
(1927-1930), the academic program continued to improve. In 1930, the Trustees 
selected Thurman D. Kitchin, dean of the medical school, to fill the presidency. Kit- 
chin was a member of a family prominent in state and national affairs: one brother, 
William W. Kitchin, had served as governor of North Carolina; another, Claude Kit- 
chin, had served as majority leader in the United States House of Representatives. 
Kitchin's twenty-year administration was one of progress in the face of many 
obstacles— the Depression, destructive campus fires (one of which destroyed 
venerable Wait Hall), the disruption caused by World War II, and a depleted stu- 
dent body. 

Notable accomplishments during this period were the approval in 1936 of the School 
of Law by the American Bar Association and in 1941, the relocation of the School 



21 



of Medicine to Winston-Salem, where it undertook full four-year operation in associa- 
tion with the North Carolina Baptist Hospital as the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 
named after the benefactor whose bequest made expansion possible. 

World War II brought other changes. Although the College was able to remain open, 
enrollment dropped in 1942 to 474. The College met this crisis by modifying its century- 
old admissions policy and becoming a coeducational institution that year. In the post- 
war period, enrollment mushroomed with the return of the veterans and reached 
a peak of 1,762 by 1949. Just before World War II, a $7,000,000 capital expansion 
campaign for buildings and endowment had been launched by President Kitchin. 
The war forced the postponement of construction, but out of the campaign came 
a proposal which offered war-ridden Wake Forest an opportunity for yet another 
rebirth. The Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation proposed that up to $350,000 a year of 
its income (an amount which has steadily increased over the years) be given in 
perpetuity to the College, provided that the entire College be relocated to Winston- 
Salem and that other friends of the College provide a campus site and buildings. 
In 1946 the Board of Trustees, the Convention, and the Baptist constituency of the 
state accepted the Reynolds proposal. Charles H. Babcock and his wife, Mary Reynolds 
Babcock, offered a 320-acre tract of their Reynolda estate as a site for the new campus. 

To move an institution over 100 years old from its rural setting 110 miles to a new 
campus in an urban area required leadership of great vision, determination, and 
youthful vigor. To succeed President Kitchin, who retired on his sixty-fifth birthday, 
the Trustees in 1950 elected to the presidency Harold Wayland Tribble, then presi- 
dent of Andover Newton Theological Seminary and a noted Baptist theologian. Presi- 
dent Tribble immediately began to mobilize alumni and friends of the College, and 
the Baptist State Convention, in support of the great transition. 

In the spring of 1951, William Neal Reynolds and Nancy Reynolds offered an 
anonymous challenge gift of $2,000,000 on the condition that the College raise 
$3,000,000 by June 30, 1952. The deadline was extended and the challenge met by 
January 1953. Mr. Reynolds died in September 1951 (the Foundation assumed his 
$1,500,000 share of the challenge grant) and he willed Wake Forest $1,000,000, to be 
paid at the time of removal. In recognition of his bequest, the new gymnasium was 
named for him. Because of the capital funds received from the Reynolds Founda- 
tion, the Trustees voted that the library be named the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 
and the administration building, Reynolda Hall. 

Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in Winston-Salem on October 15, 1951, when 
a crowd of more than 20,000 watched President Harry Truman lift the first shovel 
of dirt to begin construction of the new Wake Forest campus. Between 1951 and 1956, 
fourteen buildings were erected; the relocation of the College to its new home was 
accomplished in time for the opening of the summer session in 1956. 

During the next eleven years of President Tribble's administration, the College ex- 
perienced many changes. It had revised its curriculum before moving to the new cam- 
pus, offering greater flexibility to students, whose number increased to 3,022. The 
size of the faculty expanded, reducing the student/teacher ratio to fourteen to one. 

Additional resources came to the College in its new home. In 1954, the will of Col- 
onel George Foster Hankins provided over $1,000,000 to be used for scholarships. 



22 



In 1956, the Ford Foundation contributed $680,000 to the endowment of the 
undergraduate program and $1,600,000 to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. After 
the completion of a challenge gift of $3,000,000 offered in 1965, the Foundation raised 
its annual contribution to $620,000. The holdings of the University's libraries more 
than tripled, and the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was awarded the income from an 
endowment fund of $4,500,000 contributed by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Founda- 
tion and Nancy Reynolds. 

Graduate work, first offered in 1866 but suspended during the removal program, 
was resumed in 1961 with the establishment of the Division of Graduate Studies. 
In 1967, recognizing the augmented resources of the College, the Trustees officially 
changed the institution's name to Wake Forest University. The Division of Graduate 
Studies became the Graduate School and the name Wake Forest College was retained 
as the designation for the undergraduate school. 

After seventeen years of strenuous effort, President Tribble retired in 1967, leaving 
as his lasting memorial the removal of the College from Wake Forest to Winston-Salem 
and its changed status from college to university, with enhanced resources and 
academic distinction. As his successor, the Trustees chose James Ralph Scales 
(1967-1983), former president of Oklahoma Baptist University and former dean of 
arts and sciences at Oklahoma State University. His administration saw important 
new developments. The Guy T and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund, valued at 
$1,600,000, was established in support of the undergraduate College. The new Babcock 
Graduate School of Management in 1969 was named in honor of Charles H. Babcock. 
Through the generosity of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and Nancy Reynolds, 
a building was constructed to house the Babcock school; a subsequent gift of $2,000,000 
was received from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation for endowment. The James 
R. Scales Fine Arts Center was opened in 1976, marking a major phase of the Col- 
lege's growth in comprehensive liberal arts education. An athletic center and addi- 
tions to the School of Law building, Guy T. Carswell Hall, have further expanded 
the physical resources of the Reynolda Campus. 

Wake Forest has expanded its programs as well as its physical facilities. The Univer- 
sity offers study for the baccalaureate degree in over thirty areas listed on page 65. 
Exchange programs with local institutions and with universities abroad have further 
expanded the range of choice and opportunity. In addition, Wake Forest maintains 
residential language centers in Venice and London for foreign study within the college 
curriculum. 

President Scales left office on October 1, 1983, to return to teaching as the University's 
first Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies. The Trustees selected Thomas K. 
Hearn Jr., a philosopher and former dean for non-medical affairs at the University 
of Alabama (Birmingham), as the University's twelfth president. He was inaugurated 
on November 4, 1983. 

Wake Forest celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary in 1984. 

The Olin Physical Laboratory opened in the fall of 1989 and makes possible a physics 
program offering hands-on research and a significantly enlarged laser physics lab. 

The Clifton L. Benson University Center opened in the fall of 1990. 



23 

Student Life 



Student life at the University is designed to offer a wide range of resources which 
promote intellectual, cultural, social, vocational, physical, psychological, and spiritual 
growth through the services of the offices of the Division of Student Life, which are 
represented by the dean of student services and the offices of Campus Ministry, Career 
Planning and Placement, Minority Affairs, Residence Life and Housing, Student 
Development, Health Education, the Student Health Service, the Benson Universi- 
ty Center, Student Union, the University Counseling Center, and the Learning Assis- 
tance Program. The University is a community, and the sense of community is fostered 
by rich opportunities for personal development. 

The Student Union, with offices in the Benson University Center, offers a diverse 
range of entertaining and enriching programs for the campus community. Men's social 
fraternities and women's societies and sororities are members of the Interfraternity 
and Intersociety Councils respectively. All students who live on campus are 
represented by the Resident Student Association. There are chapters of the major 
honor societies and professional societies for qualified students, and the University 
makes a number of academic awards for distinguished student achievement and ser- 
vice. Intercollegiate athletics for men and women and an intramural sports program 
are strong, distinguished by tradition and performance. Religious activities are cen- 
tral to the life of the University and, like campus cultural opportunities, are distinc- 
tive. The University offers a number of additional services to students relating to their 
physical and mental health, spiritual growth, and preparation for life. 

Student Government 

Student Government plays an important role in students' lives. It is the voice of 
the student body in the consideration of new programs and the modification of stu- 
dent life policies. 

The executive branch of the Student Government is comprised of the four student 
body officers — president, vice president, secretary, treasurer — and the executive 
advisory committees. Reporting directly to the officers are various committees which 
work on improving service to students. These committees are open to all students. 

The legislative branch of the Student Government is composed of seventy-one 
student representatives; the vice president of the student body serves as speaker. 
The Legislature represents the interests of students in social and academic matters, 
and promotes and funds projects of benefit to the student body and the larger 
community. It oversees disbursement of funds to student groups, and recommends 
the chartering of student groups seeking recognition by the University. Major 
committees are the Charter Committee, the Committee on Committees, the Campus 
Life Committee, the Economics Committee, the Judicial Committee, the Academic 
Committee, the Appropriations and Budget Committee, and the Student Relations 
Committee. 

The honor system is an expression of the concern that students act with honor and 
integrity. It is an integral part of the Student Government as adopted by students 
and approved by the faculty. Its essence is that each student's word can be trusted 
implicitly and that any violation of a student's word is an offense against the whole 



24 



community. The honor system obligates students neither to give nor receive unau- 
thorized aid on academic work; to have complete respect for the property rights of 
others; to make no false or deceiving statements regarding academic matters to another 
member of the University community; not to interfere with the procedures of the 
honor system; and to confront any student who has violated the honor system and 
to remind that student of the responsibilities dictated by the honor system. 

The Honor Council consists of fourteen members— two officers selected by and from 
the Honor Council of the previous year plus three representatives from each class. 
There are three non-voting faculty advisers. 

It is the duty of the Honor Council to receive and investigate reports of honor system 
violations, to prefer charges where appropriate, and to arrange hearings for all charges 
of violations of the honor system. Penalties for a violation of the honor system may 
include a period of probation. A student who is found guilty of premeditated cheating 
is suspended or expelled from the University. Expulsion is normally automatic upon 
conviction for a second offense. All actions of the Honor Council are reported in 
writing to the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy, and the dean of student services. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor system may be ineligible to represent 
the University until the period of punishment — whether suspension, probation, 
or another form — is completed and the student is returned to good standing, depend- 
ing on the circumstances involved with the offense. A student who has been suspend- 
ed can be readmitted to the College only on the approval of the faculty or its Com- 
mittee on Academic Affairs. During the period of suspension, the student cannot 
be certified to another institution as being in good standing. 

The Case Referral Panel receives reports from the office of the dean of student ser- 
vices on student violations of University social regulations, conducts necessary in- 
vestigations, and draws up specific charges. When a plea of guilty is entered, the 
Case Referral Panel levies a penalty, if one is appropriate. If a plea of not guilty or 
no plea is entered, the case is forwarded to the Student Judicial Board. 

The Student Judicial Board is composed of twelve members, at least three men and 
three women, who are elected at large from the student body. It is the duty of the 
Board to receive, prefer, and try all charges of social misconduct and violations of 
University rules and regulations for individual students as well as student organiza- 
tions not covered by the Honor Council, the director of residence life and housing, 
or the Traffic Appeals Board. A student who violates these regulations or who behaves 
in such a way as to bring reproach upon him/herself or upon the University is sub- 
ject to penalties ranging from verbal reprimand to suspension on the first offense. 
For further offenses, expulsion may occur. 

The interim judicial process, which provides trial before a five-person panel of faculty 
and students, is available at times when the normal processes are not functioning. 

The Judicial Council, a nine-person panel consisting of five faculty members, two 
administrators, and two students, hears appeals from the Honor Council, the Case 
Referral Panel, the Student Judicial Board, and the Interim Judicial process. The Judicial 
Council also supervises the undergraduate judicial system. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students 
and certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 



25 



Student Union 

The Student Union is responsible for scheduling entertainment activities, developing 
and presenting educational and cultural programs to complement academic studies, 
assisting other student organizations, and providing supporting equipment and 
services. The Student Union Program Council, representing all students, cooperates 
with the staff in daily operations and supervises the efforts of eleven committees 
and a large body of student volunteers. 

The Benson University Center, a 105,000-square-foot building, has a central rotun- 
da capped by a skylight and contains modern facilities for activities and events. Start- 
ing with the lowest level underground, the five levels are: Exercise and Wellness (con- 
ditioning and aerobics areas); Entertainment and Nutrition (eating facilities, film 
auditorium and TV lounge); Information and Leadership (lobby, Information Desk, 
offices); Conference and Events (conference rooms, art display areas); and Com- 
munication loft (student publications and radio station). 

Resident Student Association 

Each residence hall has a House Council which makes decisions about hall activities 
and budget allocations. House Council meetings also are forums for discussion of 
issues affecting student life in the residence halls. The Councils are comprised of 
an executive board of resident student representatives from each floor. Although each 
floor elects a House Council representative, every resident is encouraged to attend 
and to participate in meetings and functions. 

The House Councils fall under the guidance and supervision of a larger student 
governing organization: the Resident Student Association (RSA). The RSA consists 
of representatives from each House Council and elected student executive officers. 
The RSA provides financial and programming support to the House Councils, and 
acts as a liaison between the Councils and the Office of Residence Life and Housing. 
RSA and the House Councils also sponsor campus-wide programs which serve the 
Wake Forest and Winston-Salem communities. 

The House Councils and RSA not only provide social and educational opportunities 
for the University community, but also give students valuable leadership experience. 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 

The Interfraternity Council is the governing body of thirteen social fraternities: Alpha 
Phi Alpha, Alpha Sigma Phi, Chi Psi, Delta Sigma Phi, Kappa Alpha, Kappa Sigma, 
Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi Epsilon, Sigma Pi, Tau Kappa 
Epsilon, and Theta Chi. The purpose of the council is to govern and coordinate the 
campus Greek affairs and activities while promoting high standards of conduct, 
scholarship, community service, and fraternal operations. 

The Intersociety Council is the governing body of seven local societies (Delphi, 
Fideles, Lynks, Phoenix, SOPHs, Strings, and Thymes) and three national sororities 
(Alpha Kappa Alpha, Delta Delta Delta, and Delta Sigma Theta), each of which has 
selective membership for women. 



26 



Both the Interfraternity and Intersociety/Sorority Councils must follow University 
regulations and the national fraternities and sororities are subject to the rules of their 
national organizations. A student must have a C average for the previous semester 
or a cumulative C average to be pledged and initiated. Students who are on proba- 
tion for any reason may not be pledged and initiated into any fraternity, society or 
sorority until the end of their probationary period. The Greek system is an excellent 
opportunity for men and women to gain leadership experience, develop life-long 
friendships, serve the Wake Forest community, and perpetuate excellence in scholastic 
achievement. 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 

Phi Beta Kappa, established in 1776, is the oldest American Greek letter society. 
Election to membership is the highest recognition of excellence in scholarship that 
an undergraduate can achieve. Students must have qualifications of "high scholar- 
ship, liberal culture, and good character." The number elected each year at Wake Forest 
is approximately eight percent of the graduating class. 

A number of nationally affiliated honor societies have been established: Anthony 
Aston Society (drama), Beta Beta Beta (biology), Beta Gamma Sigma (business), Delta 
Phi Alpha (German), Eta Sigma Phi (classics), Lambda Alpha (anthropology), 
Omicron Delta Epsilon (economics), Phi Alpha Theta (history), Pi Mu Epsilon 
(mathematics), Pi Sigma Alpha (political science), Sigma Tau Delta (English), Omicron 
Delta Kappa, and Mortar Board. There are student sections of the American Chemical 
Society, the American Institute of Physics, and the American Society of Personnel 
Administration. There is also a chapter of the national service fraternity, Alpha Phi 
Omega. 

Other student organizations include: Accounting Society, Amnesty International, An- 
thropology Club, Baptist Student Union, Black Christian Fellowship, Black Student 
Alliance, Catholic Student Association, Circolo Italiano, College Democrats, College 
Republicans, Dance Club, Economics Society, Episcopal Student Fellowship, Equestrian 
Club, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Frisbee Club, Gospel Choir, Habitat for Humani- 
ty, Harbinger Corps, Hockey Club, International Club, Intervarsity Christian Fellowship, 
Karate Club, Literary Society, Marketing Society, Model United Nationals, Peer Coun- 
selors, Politics Club, Pre-Law Society, Presbyterian Fellowship, Rugby Football Club, 
Safe Rides, Sailing Club, Scuba Club, Soccer Club, Sociology Club, Students Against 
Apartheid, Students for Life, Student Alumni Council, Volunteer Service Corps, Wesley 
Foundation, and Wilderness and Mountaineering Club. 

Academic Awards and Competitions 

The following awards are made annually: the A. D. Ward Medal for the senior mak- 
ing the best address at commencement; the /. B. Currin Medal for the best oration, 
essay, or work of music or art on the topic "Christ in Modern Life"; the D. A. Brown 
Prize to the student whose writing most merits recognition; the M. D. Phillips Prize 
to the outstanding senior in Greek or Latin; the John Y, Phillips Prize to the outstand- 
ing senior in mathematics; the H. Broadus Jones Award to the student whose paper 
shows greatest insight into the works of Shakespeare; the Ruth Poster Campbell Award 
to the student whose ability in the Spanish language and spirit of joyful inquiry 



27 



into Spanish culture have been most outstanding; the Forrest W. Clonts Award to the 
outstanding senior in history; the C. Chilton Pearson Research Prize for the outstand- 
ing paper written by a junior or senior American history major; the Forrest W. Clonts 
Research Prize for the outstanding paper written by a junior or senior non-American 
history major; the Phi Alpha Theta Research Prize for the best paper written by a junior 
or senior member; the Claud H. Richards Award to the outstanding senior in politics; 
the John Allen Easley Medal to the outstanding senior in religion; the American Bible 
Society Award for the outstanding senior Bible student; the Lura Baker Paden Medal 
to the outstanding senior in business; the Wall Street Journal Medal and a year's subscrip- 
tion to the Journal to the outstanding senior in finance; the A. M. Pullen and Company 
Medal to the senior with the highest achievement in accounting; the William E. Speas 
Award to the outstanding senior in physics; the Carolina Biological Supply Company 
Award to the major in biology who is judged by the department to have completed 
the outstanding undergraduate research project of the year; the Walter S. Flory Award 
to the senior major in biology who is judged by the department to have made the 
greatest overall contribution by an undergraduate to the Department of Biology. 

The William C. and Ruth N. Archie Award, established by a grant from Ruth N. Archie 
and from the Archies' son and daughter-in-law, William Archie Jr. and Margaret 
Archie, is given each year to the graduating senior who, in the opinion of the dean 
of the College and a faculty committee appointed by the dean, has shown most con- 
spicuously a commitment to liberal learning, to scholarship, and to the ideals of Wake 
Forest College. In odd-numbered years the award is presented to a female student; 
in even-numbered years it is presented to a male student. 

The Christopher Giles and Lucille S. Harris Competitions in Musical Performance have 
been held within the University annually since 1978. Five cash awards, ranging from 
$100 to $500, are awarded to student winners. Two prizes are endowed by Patrica 
Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan. The 
awards are known as the Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Prize and the 
Patricia Sloan Mize Prize. 

Intramural Athletics 

The intramural program operates under the auspices of the Department of Health 
and Sport Science. It provides a variety of competitive activities for students, faculty, 
and staff. There are sports for male, female, and coed participation. Activities usual- 
ly included in the intramural program are basketball, cross-country, football, golf, 
racquetball, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, water polo, wrestling, and 
weight lifting. 

Students occasionally organize club teams for other sports and activities, which 
are not taught or directed by the College, but which are conducted as student organiza- 
tions with the approval of Student Government and the faculty. Currently these in- 
clude rugby, karate, equestrian, sailing, scuba diving, soccer, outing, and dance. 
Students who are interested in a sport not offered through the College may organize 
themselves and petition the Student Government and faculty for approval. 



28 



Intercollegiate Athletics 

For men: 

Under the director of athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic Coast 
Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and participates in inter- 
collegiate football, basketball, baseball, golf, tennis, soccer, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. Wake Forest offers several special scholarships 
and awards: the Arnold Palmer Award for the Wake Forest Athlete of the Year, as judged 
by lettermen from each team; the Buddy Worsham Memorial Scholarship, the John R. 
Knott Scholarship, and the Lanny Wadkins Scholarship for golf; the Carl Tacy, Lowell "Lefty" 
Davis, Horace "Bones" McKinney, and Vernon Nelson Scholarships for basketball; the 
Granger Ancarrow Scholarship for track/cross country; the Nikos Ridle and John H. Vernon 
Jr. Scholarships for tennis; and the John T. Hicks Scholarships for baseball. The George 
C. Mitchell, Helen Ann Ward Straughan, Claude and Anne Bruce Brewer Gore, C. Hunter 
Moricle, and Addison Hewlett Jr. Scholarships are general athletic scholarships. 

For women: 

Under the director of women's athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic 
Coast Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in 
basketball, field hockey, golf, tennis, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. 

Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) has served the nation with 
distinction for seventy-five years. The Corps exists to commission the future officer 
leadership of the United States Army, the United States Army Reserve and the Army 
National Guard. 

The Wake Forest AROTC program was established in 1951. Its graduates, both male 
and female, have served and are serving in positions of leadership at the highest 
levels of all three components of the Army of the United States. The Corps of Cadets 
is organized as a Cadet Battalion. Participation in its activities develops self-confidence, 
physical and mental stamina, and leader competence, and instills in the cadet the 
tradition of selfless service to the nation. 

Officership is the centerpiece of the AROTC program of instruction. A baccalaureate 
degree and a commission are the two principal goals of the cadet. Cadets are well- 
rounded, fully-participating members of the Wake Forest community who have chosen 
to take advantage of the leadership development opportunities available through the 
Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps while simultaneously repaying their country 
for its gifts of freedom and security. 

Religious Activities 

The Campus Ministry provides a variety of opportunities for the spiritual develop- 
ment of students, faculty, and staff. Thursday Worship is a weekly service which 
addresses the needs of the community through scripture, prayer, preaching, and 



29 



music. A Pre-School Conference for freshmen each fall, a Church Vocations day in 
winter, and a Faith and Reason forum each spring promote the integration of spiritual 
and educational concerns. A Volunteer Service Corps enables students to get involved 
in the needs of the Winston-Salem community. There are ten student religious 
organizations which provide regular programs, including Bible study, music, worship, 
mission opportunities, and guest speakers on contemporary Christian concerns: 
Baptist Student Union, Black Christian Fellowship, Catholic Student Association, 
Episcopal Fellowship, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Inter-Varsity Christian Fel- 
lowship, Lutheran Fellowship, Presbyterian Fellowship, United Methodist Fellowship, 
and University Gospel Choir. The University chaplain, assistant chaplain/Baptist cam- 
pus minister, Methodist chaplain, Presbyterian campus minister, Roman Catholic 
chaplain, Episcopal chaplain, Lutheran campus minister, and the coordinator of Inter- 
Varsity Christian Fellowship compose the Campus Ministry staff. The chaplains are 
available for counseling in a variety of areas: spiritual direction, advice to religious 
organizations, and help in dealing with crisis situations such as serious illness or 
death. The Wake Forest Baptist Church cooperates with Campus Ministry in both 
joint and individual efforts to serve the community. 

Cultural Activities 

The University Theatre presents four major productions and several lab plays 
annually, employing faculty, student, and visiting professional directors. Each year, 
the Student Union, with the assistance of the University Theatre, sponsors a dinner 
theatre, directed and performed by students. WFDD (FM) broadcasts a program ser- 
vice of classical music, news and information, jazz, and folk music, 24 hours per 
day, 365 days per year to Piedmont North Carolina as a member of National Public 
Radio. In addition to student announcers, producers, and technicians, it has a pro- 
fessional staff of seven. WAKE Radio (FM), a completely student-operated radio sta- 
tion, is provided via the campus cable system. Intercollegiate debate at Wake Forest 
has a long record of excellence, and the College hosts two annual debate tournaments: 
the Franklin Shirley Dixie Classic and the National Early Bird High School Forensics 
Tournament. 

Student publications include Old Gold and Black, a weekly newspaper; The Student, 
a literary magazine; and the Howler, the yearbook. The Student Union sponsors ma- 
jor speakers and symposia throughout the academic year, and departments in the 
College engage specialists for other series. The Hester Philosophy Seminar, occurring 
every two years, is sponsored by the Department of Philosophy. The Albritton, Easley, 
and Robinson Lectures are sponsored by the Department of Religion, one being held 
each year. The Department of Psychology sponsors a colloquium series throughout 
the academic year. 

The Tocqueville Forum and the Luce Lectures bring nationally-known speakers to 
campus— to lecture and teach— under major grants from the Smith Richardson Foun- 
dation and the Henry Luce Foundation. 

Student musicians perform for academic credit in the Choral Union, the Concert 
Choir, the Madrigal Singers, the Opera Workshop, the University Orchestra, the 
Deacon Marching Band, the Symphonic Band, the Jazz Ensemble, various chamber 
ensembles, and the Collegium Musicum. All student ensembles give public perfor- 
mances each semester. 



30 



Major concerts by orchestras and artists from around the world are performed in 
Wait Chapel and Brendle Recital Hall in the Scales Fine Arts Center under the auspices 
of the Secrest Artists Series. The Department of Music also sponsors performances 
by faculty students, and visiting artists, and, in cooperation with the University 
Theatre, presents musical theatrical productions. Visiting dance soloists and companies 
and other musical programs are held in Brendle Recital Hall. Recitals are played by 
both students and guest carillonneurs on the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon. 
Students in the Chapel Bell Guild play English handbells for convocations and services 
in Wait Chapel. 

All concerts are open to students and to others in the community. 

In addition to studio instruction in the Department of Art, visiting artists teach 
on campus and at the nearby Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art. Reynolda 
House has frequent lectures related to its special collection in American art. The 
Student Union has an expanding collection of contemporary works of art, under stu- 
dent administration and exhibited in the Benson University Center and elsewhere 
on campus. The T J. Simmons Collection of paintings, etchings, lithographs, and 
sculpture also is on permanent display throughout the campus. Cultural resources 
in the community, in addition to the Reynolda House Museum of American Art and 
the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, include the restored historic Mora- 
vian village of Old Salem, the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, the North 
Carolina School of the Arts and its associated professional performing companies 
in theatre, dance, and music, and the Winston-Salem Symphony and Chorale. Folk 
art, professional art, and crafts fairs are frequent. 

Career Planning and Placement 

The office for Career Planning and Placement in Reynolda Hall offers a full range 
of career services, including placement counseling, library resources, and a computer 
program which helps students determine career and graduate or professional school 
interests. Other services include career exploration, choice of an academic major, 
resume writing and interviewing skills, and interviews with prospective employers. 
The office helps students choose careers and find full-time, part-time, and summer 
jobs. The office directs a comprehensive internship program which provides experien- 
tial learning opportunities for undergraduates. 

The office maintains a file on each registered student to help with on-campus 
interviews and off-campus job search. More than 200 companies, agencies, and 
colleges and universities interview registered undergraduate and graduate students 
during the year. Job vacancy listings, employer directories, company profiles, and 
alumni contacts provide leads for the off -campus job search. 

Students are invited to take advantage of these services, beginning early in their 
college years. The office resources are available on a walk-in basis during regular of- 
fice hours and individual consultations are available by appointment. 

University Counseling Center 

The University Counseling Center (118 Reynolda Hall) offers a broad range of 
counseling and psychological services. Students can discuss their personal, educa- 
tional, and career concerns with a professional counselor or psychologist. A variety 



31 



of tests are available to help students identify their vocational and educational in- 
terests, study skills and personality traits. 

There are a number of programs and groups designed to assist students with specific 
concerns such as self-confidence, eating disorders, stress management, relationships, 
substance abuse, etc. Educational materials about these and other topics are avail- 
able. The Center also provides referrals when necessary. Psychological emergencies 
are handled through the Center in cooperation with the Student Health Service. 
Appointments are available Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. - 5 p.m. Confiden- 
tiality is assured and no fees are charged to students. 

Learning Assistance Program 

Another service sponsored by the Counseling Center is the Learning Assistance 
Program. The program's services include study skills training through individual 
academic counseling, computer-assisted instruction in subject areas, and individual 
and group tutoring. The Learning Assistance Program staff presents courses and 
seminars in academic skills throughout the year. Located in 117 Reynolda Hall, the 
Learning Assistance Program is open Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 
p.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Students may call 759-5929 to schedule an 
appointment. 

Student Health Service 

The Student Health Service is located in Kitchin House and provides primary care 
services, including general health maintenance, diagnostic and treatment procedures, 
and referral to specialists. It is open when residence halls are in operation; a health 
information questionnaire is required to be on file for all students. The services of 
the clinical staff are covered by tuition; there are additional charges for injections, 
medications, laboratory tests, special physical examinations, and in-patient care. (See 
'Admission," page 33, and "Other Charges," page 36, for further detailed information.) 

The Health Education Program 

The health education program provides a variety of services geared to promote 
healthy living. The health educator offers programs in areas such as substance abuse 
prevention and intervention, nutrition and weight control, sexual health, contracep- 
tion, and exercise. A team of trained peer educators are also available to provide in- 
formation on a variety of health-related issues. The health education office, located 
in Room 321, Benson Center, may also be used as a resource for brochures, literature, 
and videos on current health information. 

Office of Minority Affairs 

The Office of Minority Affairs helps minority students to assess their educational 
goals and academic skills in order to achieve a satisfying college experience at Wake 
Forest. The staff also helps students to understand the history of the University and 
promotes an appreciation of each student's heritage and background. A variety of 
orientation services are offered to new students to facilitate their transition into campus 
life. 



32 



The office serves as a resource for programs that foster positive race relations. In 
addition, the Office of Minority Affairs, through the work of the counselor for minority 
recruitment, has primary responsibility for the recruitment of minority students. 




33 

Procedures 



All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this bulletin 
which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses and expenses are not 
to be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student and the institution. The University 
reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and the cost of instruction at any time 
within the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational 
achievement. The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's 
academic records, scores on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and 
general fitness for study in the College. The applicant's secondary school program 
must establish a commitment to the kind of broad liberal education reflected in the 
academic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a freshman normally requires graduation from an accredited 
secondary school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should 
include four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, 
two in a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who 
presents at least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can 
be considered. A limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high 
school diploma, with particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

All persons admitted are required to submit a health history, along with the results 
of a physical examination, certain laboratory tests, and immunization records, to the 
director of the Student Health Service. If a person who has been accepted but has 
not yet enrolled has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the 
director of the health service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student 
or others, that person may be required to delay matriculation until the problem is resolved. 

North Carolina law and Wake Forest University require that all new, transfer, read- 
mit, unclassified or visiting students submit proof of immunization against tetanus 
and diphtheria (Td), polio, rubeola, rubella, and mumps before registration. The stu- 
dent handbook has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, 
physician, or county health department director containing the approved dates is 
acceptable proof of immunization. The Student Health Service will furnish a form 
for this purpose. North Carolina law requires that students who do not submit pro- 
per proof of immunization within thirty days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest 
University until these immunizations have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109). It should be completed 
and returned to that office no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most admis- 
sions decisions for the fall semester are made by April 1, with prompt notification 
of applicants. For the spring semester, applications should be completed and returned 



34 



no later than October 15. Except in emergency, the final date for applying for the 
fall semester is August 1 and for the spring semester, January 1. Application on this 
last-date basis is primarily for non-resident students. 

The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from 
secondary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, 
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board. Accom- 
panying achievement tests are optional. All test scores should be sent directly to the 
University by Educational Testing Service. A $25 fee to cover the cost of processing 
must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later charges for accepted 
students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject any applica- 
tion without explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent 
to the Office of Admissions no later than May 1 following notice of acceptance. It 
is credited toward first semester fees. Students notified of acceptance after May 1 
for the fall semester or November 1 for the spring semester should make the admis- 
sion deposit within two weeks of notification. Deposits made after May 1 and 
November 1 are not refundable. Failure to make the admission deposit is taken as 
cancellation of application by the student. No deposit is required for summer session 
enrollment. 

Early Decision 

An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who decide, 
by the close of their junior year, to apply only to Wake Forest University. An early 
decision agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the Office of 
Admissions after completion of the junior year and not later than November 15 of 
the senior year. Along with the high school record, recommendations, and scores 
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, at least one achievement test, especially in English 
composition, is strongly recommended. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be 
enrolled in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, 
and mathematics requirements of the secondary school. Decisions are based upon 
junior year grades and test scores; SATs and achievement tests taken in the fall of 
the senior year cannot be considered for early decision. 

Early decision applicants with completed applications are notified of acceptance 
on a rolling basis and not later than December 1 for the fall semester, and the admission 
deposit is required by January 1. Applicants not admitted are asked to submit a senior 
year Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester senior year grade record, or 
are advised to apply elsewhere. 

Admission of Handicapped Students 

Wake Forest University will consider the application of any qualified student, 
regardless of handicap, on the basis of the selection criteria established by the Univer- 
sity which include personal and academic merit. Upon matriculation, all students 
will be required to meet the same standards for graduation. Programs at Wake Forest 
are accessible to all of its students. The University will assist handicapped students in 



35 



making arrangements to meet special needs. Students who seek further information 
should consult the Office of Admissions or the University's equal opportunity officer. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 

Advanced placement credit for college-level work done in high school is available 
on the basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance 
Examination Board and supplementary information. Especially well-qualified 
applicants for advanced standing may also be exempt from some basic and divisional 
courses with credit on the authorization of the department concerned. Credit by 
advanced standing is treated in the same manner as credit transferred from another 
college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted limited 
college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination Program 
(CLEP) of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned with the 
approval of the department concerned or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon 
the availability of space in the freshman (second semester), sophomore, and junior 
classes. In recent years, such space has been very limited. An applicant for admis- 
sion who has attended another college must be a graduate of a standard junior college 
or furnish a certificate of honorable dismissal stating eligibility in all respects to enter 
the college last attended, and must have an overall average of at least C on all college 
work attempted. A student who is admitted from another college before fully meeting 
the prescribed admissions requirements for entering freshmen must remove the 
entrance conditions during the first year at Wake Forest. 

The writing of transfer students is evaluated during the orientation period each 
semester, and students whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. 
For removal of a composition condition, the student is required to take English 11 during 
the first semester for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. 
Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject 
to faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake 
Forest curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree 
is two academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services outlined 
herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the University reserves 
the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other services at any time. 

An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the 
semester for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admission. 



36 



Charges are due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the 
spring semester. Faculty regulations require that student accounts be settled in full 
before the student is entitled to receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to 
register for the following semester or term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Full-Time (twelve or more credits) $5,400 $10,800 

Part-Time $305 per credit 

Based on recent years, students should expect an average increase in excess of 10 
percent yearly. However, admittance to the undergraduate college is not based on 
financial resources. The University meets the demonstrated financial needs of all 
qualified students. 

Students enrolled in the College or in the School of Business and Accountancy 
for full-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, 
laboratories, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theatre, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the libraries 
and laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may secure 
a part-time student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publications by 
paying an activity fee of $125 per semester. 

Room Charges 

Per Semester Per Year 

Double occupancy $840 $1,680 

Most rooms available for first-year students are $840 per semester. Other room rentals 
range from $670 to $1,100. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria and table service dining room are located in Reynolda Hall; there is 
a food court in the Benson University Center. Board plans are available which range 
from approximately $1,280 to $2,080 per year. The format of these plans is a credit 
card system in which the student is charged only for the amount of food purchased 
at the time it is purchased. The plan may be used at any University food services 
facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility for eating off campus. 

Freshmen living in dormitories are required to participate in both the fall and spring semesters 
in one of the board plans. 

Other Charges 

Admission application fee of $25 is required with each application for admission to cover 
the cost of processing and is non-refundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or 
returning after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of 



37 



admissions. The deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which 
he or she has been accepted for admission. 

Applied music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for individual 
study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the controller's 
office. The fee for one credit per semester is $110; for more than one credit per 
semester, $175. 

Hospital bed and board charges, made when the student is confined to the Student 
Health Service, are $50 per day. An additional charge is made for special services 
(minimum $10) and expensive drugs. Students must have hospital insurance. A group 
plan is available through the University for those not covered by a family plan. A 
$2 charge is added to overdue bills. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations 
and are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of the Controller, of 
students enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. 
It is credited to the student's University charges and is refunded if the controller is 
notified in writing prior to June 1 that the student will not return. 

Room change fee of $25 is charged for any unauthorized change. 

Motor vehicle registration is $60 and traffic fines $10 to $20. All students operating a 
vehicle on campus (including student apartments and the Graylyn Conference Center) 
must register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether or not owned by the 
operator. All vehicle registrations must be completed within twenty-four hours from 
the first time the vehicle is brought to campus. Proof of ownership must be presented 
when applying for vehicle registration. Fines are assessed against students violating 
parking regulations; copies of the violations are obtainable from the Office of Park- 
ing Management in the University security office. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued at a cost of $2 each. 

Refunds 

During the academic year, all students, full-time and part-time, receive tuition 
refunds according to the following schedule. This policy applies to students dropping 
courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals must be official and students must 
return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is no refund of room rent. 

Number of Weeks Percentage of Total Tuition 

Attendance to be Refunded 
(Including first day of 
registration) 

1 week Total Tuition Less $200 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 



38 



Fees for applied lessons in the Department of Music will be refunded on the follow- 
ing basis: If a student drops the course before the seventh lesson the fee will be one- 
fourteenth the full semester's instruction fee times the number of lessons the student 
has had. There is no refund after the seventh lesson. 

Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is given by the dean of student services for the student to live with 
parents or a relative in the Winston-Salem area or (2) by special arrangement when 
space is not available on campus or (3) if the student has lost residence hall space 
because of a room contract violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year students and 
part-time students are ineligible for housing except when permitted to do so by the 
director of residence life and housing. Married students are not usually allowed to 
live in residence halls except when permitted to do so by the director of residence 
life and housing. Residence halls and apartments are supervised by the director of 
residence life and housing, associate directors of residence life and housing, assis- 
tant directors of residence life and housing, and residence hall directors. 

The charges for residence hall rooms for 1991-92 will range from $1,340 per year 
for a triple room to $2,200 for a single room in an air-conditioned building. These 
rates will vary depending upon the building to which a student is assigned. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
includes a fall semester ending before Christmas, a spring semester beginning in 
January and ending in May, and two five-week summer sessions. Semesters usually 
last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 

A four-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registra- 
tion for the fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance 
during and between registration periods throughout the student's freshman and 
sophomore years. Advisers meet with students both individually and in small groups. 
Students are encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at 
any time they feel a need for advice or other assistance. The adviser suggests and 
approves courses of instruction until the student declares a major in a field of study 
toward the end of the sophomore year. At that time, a new adviser is assigned from 
the department or departments concerned. 

Registration 

A registration period for all students in the College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registration in- 
volves (1) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining a sum- 
mary of prior record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic adviser, 



39 



and (4) sectioning into courses. In certain semesters, part of these processes are 
accomplished ahead of time through pre-registration. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calculated 
in terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy have a value of four credits, but others vary from one credit to five. 
The normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a 
maximum of nineteen (twenty if only four courses are involved) permitted on registra- 
tion day. A student wishing to register for more than twenty credits per semester 
must seek the permission of the appropriate dean or the Committee on Academic 
Affairs after registration day. 

Twelve credits per semester constitutes minimum full-time registration. (Recipients 
of North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day of 
classes for at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, 
grants from state government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines 
of the appropriate agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits 
without specific permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as 
a part-time student. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student 
in the spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part- 
time status within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not 
eligible for a tuition refund. 

The requirements for classification after the freshman year are as follows: 
sophomore— the removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer 
than 29 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior— the 
completion of no fewer than 60 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 grade 
points; senior— no fewer than 108 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 216 
grade points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the student, 
who is expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of the 
residential college experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot be 
measured by testing procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently mature 
to appreciate the necessity of regular attendance, to accept this personal responsibility, 
to demonstrate the self-discipline essential for such performance, and to recognize 
and accept the consequences of failure to attend. Students who cause their work 
or that of the class to suffer because of absence or lateness may be referred by the 
instructor to the dean of the College or to the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy for suitable action. Any student who does not attend classes regularly 
or who demonstrates other evidence of academic irresponsibility is subject to such 
disciplinary action as the Committee on Academic Affairs may prescribe, including 
immediate suspension from the College or from the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 



40 



The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have been 
absent from class because of illness as certified by the Student Health Service, because 
of other extenuating circumstances, or as authorized representatives of the College 
whose names have been submitted by appropriate officials forty-eight hours in ad- 
vance of the hour when the absences are to begin. Such absences are considered 
excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon request. 
The instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. 

Auditing Courses 

When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others 
may request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No addi- 
tional charge is made to full-time students in the College or the School of Business 
and Accountancy; for others the fee is $80 per course. Permission of the appropriate 
dean, as well as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to attendance 
regulations and to other conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an auditor 
receives no credit, a notation of audit is made on the final grade report and entered 
on the record of regularly enrolled students who have met the instructor's re- 
quirements. In no case may anyone register for an audit course before the first meeting 
of the class. An audit course may not be changed to a credit course, and a credit 
course may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in the 
calendar in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course before 
this date must obtain the necessary form from the registrar and confer with his or 
her faculty adviser. After this date, a student who wishes to drop a course must con- 
sult his or her faculty adviser, the course instructor, and the dean of the College or 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, as appropriate. If the dean ap- 
proves the request, he or she authorizes the student to discontinue the course. Except 
in case of emergency, the grade in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior, written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to academic probation for the follow- 
ing semester or to such other penalties as the Committee on Academic Affairs of 
the faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 

A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the School of 
Business and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 
student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal is taken into considera- 
tion when readmission is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades 
may be assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. 
A student who leaves the College or the School of Business and Accountancy without 



41 



officially withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the unof- 
ficial withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are 
conducted in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and 
approved by the faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfairness 
in any form and to report to the Honor Council any student whom he or she knows 
to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are five final and two condi- 
tional grades: A (exceptionally high achievement), B (superior), C (satisfactory), D (passing 
but unsatisfactory), E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade ofE. The grade of E entitles the student to re-examination at any regular ex- 
amination period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A per- 
mit for re-examination must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no grade 
higher than D may be assigned as a result of re-examination. A student who does 
not remove a conditional failure by re-examination must repeat the course to obtain 
credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who has received a grade of E 
in the previous semester may apply to the registrar for re-examination thirty days 
after the opening of the final semester but no later than thirty days before its close. 
All conditions, including the grade of E, must be removed no later than thirty days 
before the end of the term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate 
who has a condition after that date is dropped from the list of candidates. A can- 
didate who receives a grade of E in the final semester or term of the graduation year 
is not allowed re-examination before the next examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete 
the work of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded 
as I is not completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next 
semester, the grade automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final 
grade to the registrar within forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic 
averages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit 
of A, four points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; 
for each credit of D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas of 
competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the option, 
under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a pass/fail basis rather than 
for a letter grade. Courses taken under the pass/fail option yield full credit when 
satisfactorily completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in the 
grade-point average. In no case may a student change from grade to pass/fail mode, 
after the last day to add a course, listed in the calendar at the front of this bulletin. 

A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken 
on a pass/fail basis. Freshmen and sophomores are not eligible to elect the pass/fail 



42 



mode, but may enroll for courses offered only on a pass/fail basis. Juniors and seniors 
may elect as many as sixteen credits on a pass/fail basis, but no more than five credits 
in a given semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, or major requirements 
may not be taken on a pass/fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. Courses 
in the major(s) not used for satisfying major requirements may be taken on a pass/fail 
basis if the department of the major does not specify otherwise. 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 

A mid-term report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the registrar 
in the fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each summer 
term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on 
the written authorization of the student and payment of $2 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes 
all full-time students in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
who have a grade-point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earn- 
ed no grade below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 

Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree can- 
didate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted is 
graduated with the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average 
of not less than 3.50 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction cum 
laude. The entire record of a student is considered, with the understanding that a 
student offering transfer work for credit may receive no distinction which requires 
a grade-point average greater than that earned at Wake Forest University. Details are 
available in the Office of the Registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C 
or higher. When a student repeats a Wake Forest course in which he or she has received 
a grade of D or F, all grades received will be shown on the transcript, but the course 
may be counted only one time for credit. For purposes of determining the grade- 
point average, a course will be considered as attempted only once, and the grade 
points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. If a student fails a course 
previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. All provisions in this 
paragraph apply only to courses attempted at Wake Forest. 

Probation 

Students are responsible at all times for knowing their academic standing. Any 
student who, at the end of the fall semester, does not have the grade-point average 
normally required for continuation at the end of the following spring semester is 
automatically on academic probation. 



43 



Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code 
violations may be placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time 
suspend or place on probation any student who has given evidence of academic 
irresponsibility as, for example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete 
papers, examinations, or other work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the stu- 
dent clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after 
consultation with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic 
Affairs for further consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit exceptions to the foregoing eligibility requirements, 
the Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convic- 
tions for violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of 
the law, and any other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and 
the student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any 
reason may not be initiated into any fraternity, society, or sorority until the end of 
their probationary period. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students 
and certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 

Requirements for Continuation 

Students are expected to be aware at all times of their academic status and to be 
responsible for knowing whether they have met the University's minimum academic 
requirements for continuation as outlined below. 

Eligibility to continue is based on the student's cumulative credit load and grade- 
point average. The cumulative credit load is a total of credit granted for work elsewhere 
and credits taken at Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy. 
The grade-point average is computed only on work attempted in Wake Forest Col- 
lege and the School of Business and Accountancy and excludes both non-credit and 
pass/fail courses. 

At the end of the spring semester, students will be declared academically ineligi- 
ble to enroll for the following fall (1) whose grade-point average on a cumulative credit 
load of less than 54 is less than 1.35; (2) whose grade-point average on a cumulative 
credit load of 54 or more but less than 98 is less than 1.65; (3) whose grade-point 
average on a cumulative credit load of 98 or more but less than 135 is less than 1.85; 
(4) whose grade-point average on a cumulative credit load of 135 or more is less than 
1.90. 

Students who, at the end of the spring semester, have not met the above condi- 
tions to continue in the following academic year may— unless they are ineligible for 
other reasons— attend the first summer session at Wake Forest College, but not else- 
where. If successful in raising the grade-point average to the required minimum, they 
may enroll for the following fall semester. Students may attend the second summer 
session if unsuccessful in the first, and if successful then, may enroll for the following 
spring semester. If unsuccessful in meeting the minimum requirements by the end 



44 



of the second summer term, the student may apply for readmission no earlier than 
the following summer session. 

Under unusual circumstances and after consultation with the appropriate dean, 
the student may petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for an exception to the 
foregoing eligibility requirements. 

The Committee on Academic Affairs may suspend or place on probation at the 
end of any semester or term any student who has not attended class regularly or 
has otherwise ignored the rules and regulations of the College or the School of Busi- 
ness and Accountancy, or whose record for that term has been unsatisfactory, 
particularly with regard to the number of courses passed and failed. The Committee 
will suspend at the end of any semester any student who has earned no more than 
eight grade points in courses other than Military Science 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 
211, 212, 251, 252; Music 111-113 (ensemble courses); and elective 100-level courses 
in health and sport science. 

A student who has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the 
director of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being 
of the student or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 

Requirements for Readmission 

A student seeking consideration for readmission to the College should be in good 
standing and meet the minimum academic requirements for continuation. However, 
a student who has not met the requirements (1) may apply for admission to the 
summer session only, (2) may apply for readmission after an absence from the College 
of at least a year and a half, or (3) may apply for readmission if the failure to meet 
minimum requirements was due to circumstances over which the student clearly had 
no control. 

When applications for readmission to the College are considered, both academic 
and non-academic criteria will be taken into account. Non-academic grounds for 
possible denial of readmission may include convictions for violations of the College's 
honor code or social conduct code, for violations of the law, and other behavior demon- 
strating disrespect for the rights of others. If a student is readmitted, the Committee 
on Academic Affairs may impose on that student conditions designed to promote 
academic progress. The conditions may include but are not limited to the following: 
a reduced course load, choice of courses approved by one of the appropriate aca- 
demic deans, and a specified number of courses satisfying basic and divisional 
requirements. 

Summer Study 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit 
are described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

In order to be eligible to take summer courses at another college or university, the 
student must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0, and must 
obtain advance approval of the head of the department concerned, the registrar, and 
in some cases, the dean's office. Courses taken elsewhere on the semester-hour plan 
are computed as transfer credit at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour. 



45 



Courses taken outside the U.S. require, in addition, prior approval from the Office 
of International Studies. Students must obtain a transfer of credit form from the Office 
of International Studies. 

Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the regis- 
trar of Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for work 
satisfactorily completed elsewhere must obtain faculty approval in advance. 

Students who wish to receive transfer of credit for courses taken outside the U.S., 
need to obtain prior approval from the Office of International Studies and then faculty 
approval. Transfer of credit forms are available in the Office of International Studies. 

Students should be aware that the minimum grade-point average for graduation 
and for graduation distinctions is computed in two ways: on all work attempted in 
Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy; and also on work 
attempted at Wake Forest and other accredited colleges and universities collectively. 




46 

Scholarships and Loans 

Any student regularly admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates finan- 
cial need will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 

By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by the 
Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at Box 7246 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109. 
Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for finan- 
cial aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been 
accepted for admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and 
federal scholarship, loan, and work funds. Students enrolled at least half-time are 
eligible to apply for federal funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to 
apply for limited institutional funds. 

The University offers a number of scholarships based upon merit. Those with a 
stipend based upon tuition will increase as tuition increases; those with a dollar 
stipend remain fixed for the four years of enrollment. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must 
file an annual financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing 
the standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, 
and aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of the Con- 
troller. The calculation of need, and therefore the amount of an award, may vary from 
year to year. The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial 
aid for unsatisfactory academic achievement or for violation of University regulations 
or federal, state, or local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must re- 
main enrolled on a normal full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfac- 
tory progress toward a degree. The committee does not award institutional 
scholarships to students earning less than a 2.0 grade average on all work attempted 
at Wake Forest. 

Scholarships 

The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to five extraordinarily capable men 
and women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a grant 
from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, these 
scholarships cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an allowance 
for books and personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each summer 
for travel or study projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The Reynolds 
Scholarships are awarded without regard to financial need and will be renewed 
annually through the recipient's fourth year of college, subject to satisfactory perfor- 
mance. A separate application is required by December 1. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W Wilson of Yancey County, 
N.C., is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding qualities of intellec- 
tual promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equivalent to annual tui- 
tion and provides summer grant opportunities to encourage individual study projects. 
No separate application is required. 



47 



The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a renewable full-tuition 
academic scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and 
aptitude who intends to pursue a pre-medical course of study. No separate applica- 
tion is required. 

The Guy T Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the 
late Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, N.C., have an annual 
value ranging from a minimum stipend of $4,000 to a maximum stipend of $15,200 
with awards for more than $4,000 determined on the basis of need. Each scholar may 
apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel and study projects 
of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student applying to the College 
who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to forty scholars 
are selected annually. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Presidential Scholarships for Distinguished Achievement, established by the Univer- 
sity's alumni, award twenty renewable $4,000 scholarships on the basis of exceptional 
talent and leadership. Candidates must be students who will enrich and add to the 
diversity of life at Wake Forest through their special talents in the areas of the fine 
arts (including music, art, theatre, dance, film, and other arts), debate and public 
speaking, writing, leadership, public service, and entrepreneurial achievement. A 
separate application must be submitted by December 15. 

The Z. Smith Reynolds and Wake Forest Black Student Scholarships, established by 
endowment from the University's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Foundation, recognize the outstanding achievements of black students and 
are awarded each year to entering freshmen who demonstrate academic promise and 
leadership potential. This program provides seven full-tuition scholarships and three 
$2,000 per year scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually through the 
recipient's fourth year. Awards are made without regard to financial need. A separate 
application is required by January 15. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships for Freshmen, made possible by the late Colonel 
George Foster Hankins of Lexington, N.C., for residents of North Carolina or children 
of alumni living in other states with preference given to residents of Davidson County, 
have an annual value of $15,200. Recipients must demonstrate need as well as academic 
promise. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Graylyn Scholarship provides three undergraduates renewable one-half year 
tuition merit scholarships and one Bowman Gray School of Medicine renewable $4,850 
merit scholarship to students who demonstrate outstanding evidence of academic 
leadership and commitment to campus life. 

The Robert R and Dorothy Caldwell Scholarships, given by family and friends of Robert 
P. and Dorothy Caldwell, provide up to three scholarships annually on the basis of 
outstanding academic achievement, demonstrated leadership ability, record of com- 
munity service, and a commitment to helping others. A portion of these funds gives 
preference to students from Gaston and Catawba (N.C.) counties who need assistance 
in order to attend Wake Forest. 

The Holding Scholarship, provided by a gift from the Robert P. Holding Foundation 
in memory of Mr. Holding, a member of the Class of 1916, offers one full tuition renew- 
able scholarship annually to a student of exceptional leadership and academic promise, 
who is in residence at least one year in North Carolina. Separate application is not 



48 



required, but the student must complete an application for either the Nancy Susan 
Reynolds or Carswell Scholarship. 

The Junius C. and Eliza P. Brown Scholarships are designed to recognize excellence among 
North Carolina students demonstrating financial need in order to attend Wake Forest. 
Preference for selection is given first to students from the Madison area of Rockingham 
County second to students from the Reidsville area of Rockingham County and third 
to other applicants from Rockingham County. A separate application is due by January 15. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required except 
where noted. Students who complete the normal application for financial aid, in- 
cluding the Wake Forest application and an FAF (Financial Aid Form), will be con- 
sidered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to 
a freshman from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. 
The scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles I. and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may 
be interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) Scholarships are awarded for academic 
and personal achievement. These four, three, and two-year scholarships annually pay: 
(1) $7,000 or 80% of tuition, whichever is higher; (2) a flat rate for texts and supplies 
(presently $390); (3) a subsistence allowance of up to $1,000 ($100 per month for the 
months spent in school); and (4) up to a maximum amount (presently $350) for cer- 
tain required on-campus educational and laboratory fees. All benefits are tax-free. Reci- 
pients must enroll and fully participate in Army ROTC. Four-year AROTC scholarships 
are applied for during the junior or senior year of high school. Two and three-year 
AROTC Scholarships are applied for during the sophomore and freshman years, respec- 
tively, through the Department of Military Science. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is presented to a senior accounting 
major who has demonstrated excellence in the areas of academic performance, leader- 
ship, and civic/community responsibility. 

The Teresa Mae Arnold Scholarship is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a 
student enrolled in Wake Forest College. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made avail- 
able, usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. Well- 
qualified students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested persons 
should apply to the Office of the Provost.) 

The Donald A. Baur Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of leadership, 
dedication, competitiveness, and citizenship, with preference given to members of Delta 
Nu Chapter, Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers 
in memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leadership, 
good citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The]. Irvin Biggs Scholarship is awarded to needy and deserving undergraduates, with 
preference given to students from Lumberton or Robeson County, North Carolina. 

The Robert D. Bridger ]r. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his 



49 



father, is made to a senior major in the School of Business and Accountancy. Selection 
of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, with 
preference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North Carolina. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to students from St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte. 

The J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of Gover- 
nor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, Alice W. 
Broughton, by the Broughton family of Raleigh, N.C., awards one scholarship annually 
to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. 
Bryan, dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full-tuition 
scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who 
demonstrates financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work 
in the education field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must repay 
the scholarship to the University. 

The Lib and Joyner Burns Scholarship is awarded on the basis of both ability and need, 
with preference given first to students having a physical handicap and second to 
students from Forsyth or Guilford Counties, North Carolina. 

The Jack Buchanan Scholarship is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic 
ability, with preference given to students from western North Carolina planning a 
business major. 

The John Douglas Cannon Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
need. 

The J. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, 
former associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is not 
on a regular athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The James Lee Carver Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her children, 
James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, James 
Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for 
financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage 
in Oxford, N.C. 

The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student 
who demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evidence 
of need, for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of 
Charlotte in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting 
Christian ideals and good academic achievement. 

The Wake Forest College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $6,000 each, are available 
to freshmen and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records and evidence 
of need. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established 
by the Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte in honor of its pastor. The scholarship 
is valued at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina Baptist ministerial 
student or students based upon merit or need. 

The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, N.C, in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is awarded on the 
basis of character, need, and promise. 



50 



The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin Culler, 
is awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership potential, with 
preference given to students from High Point, N.C. 

The Egbert L. Davis Jr. Scholarship, provided by the Davis family in honor of Egbert 
L. Davis Jr., noted Wake Forest alumnus and benefactor, provides merit and need 
assistance to one or more students demonstrating outstanding academic performance, 
diligence, integrity, character, leadership, and reasonable athletic competence. Awards 
are renewable on the basis of a B average, exemplary personal conduct, and participa- 
tion in the religious life of the University. 

The Eleanor Layfield Davis Art Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chair of the art 
department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of Piedmont Avia- 
tion Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chairman, is awarded to a senior business 
major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for business 
leadership. 

The Elizabeth S. Drake Scholarship is awarded to an English major who demonstrates 
academic ability and financial need, upon the recommendation of the chair of the 
English department. 

The A. /. Fletcher Music Scholars Program, established by the A. J. Fletcher Founda- 
tion, awards eight scholarships annually. All awards are based on musical merit. Ap- 
plications must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Bobbie Fletcher Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability 
and uncommon leadership qualities to a female student from North Carolina. Reci- 
pients will possess the qualities of kindness, thoughtfulness, unselfishness, patience, 
and determination which distinguished Bobbie Fletcher. Preference will be given to 
students demonstrating financial need. 

The Lecausey P. and Tula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 
Singleton of Raleigh in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is available to a fresh- 
man, sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West Chowan Baptist Associa- 
tion of North Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County students, on the basis 
of need and ability. Residents of the Roanoke Association may be considered for the 
scholarship. 

The Wallace G. Freemon Memorial Scholarship is awarded to premedical students in Wake 
Forest College. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauff 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts 
vary according to need. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee Fulton, 
is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic ability, 
and need. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake 
counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean 
H. Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a freshman or upper- 



51 



classman with preference given to a pre-medical student. The award shall be made 
on the basis of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known 
as Lewis Reed Gaskin scholars. 

The Daniel Eugene and Beulah B. Gatewood Scholarship in Accountancy, given by Beulah 
B. Gatewood in honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting 
major based on academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, and 
high ideals. Preference is given to graduating seniors from Youngsville, N.C. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, 
James W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given 
to students from Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties, Maryland. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from 
Halifax County, N.C. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miriam 
M. Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given to 
a student with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an interest 
in history, and third preference to a student enrolled in the pre-medical program. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year 
to a needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Va. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of Everett C. Snyder of Wake 
Forest, N.C, in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate students from the Mills 
Home in Thomasville, N.C. 

The George G. and Georgeine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of vary- 
ing stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial need, 
with preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henry Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by 
Elizabeth Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the 
basis of academic ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans 
to pursue a career in banking. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. Hasty 
in memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate 
student(s) with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renewable 
if the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Louise Patton Hearn Scholarship for Human Service is awarded to a student who 
has demonstrated exceptional service to improve the well-being of other people and 
who shows interest and potential in leading others to make similar contributions to 
humanity. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, N.C, 
in memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan to enter 
the ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the preference 
being in the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville area, recommended by 
the deacons of the First Baptist Church of Reidsville. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert 
D. Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 



52 



need, Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County, upon 
the advice and counsel of the minister of the Brasstown Baptist Church of Durham, 
N.C. 

The Forrest H. Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in 
memory of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evidence 
of character and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Rutherford 
counties, N.C, and to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Jeanette Wallace Hyde Scholarship, donated by Jeanette Wallace Hyde of Raleigh, 
is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic ability. Preference is given, 
but not limited to, students from Yadkin County. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising senior 
business major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The J. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a 
North Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL- 
Carolina Telephone Company service region. 

The Sarah C. and C. A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to freshmen and upperclassmen 
on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard to 
race, religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter 
of Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference 
given to members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the 
Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to pre-medical students from Anson County 
and immediately adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactory 
evidence of a willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in 
Wadesboro or Anson County. 

The James C. Mason Scholarship Fund, created under the will of Oscar W. McManus 
of Laurinburg, N.C, is awarded to a worthy student. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace 
Communications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the School of Business 
and Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first three 
years at the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of character, 
academic standing, and need. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available 
to a deserving and qualified music student. Applications must be made to the Depart- 
ment of Music. 

The McGladrey & Pullen Scholarship, granted by the public accounting firm, 
McGladrey & Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major designated by the 
accounting faculty on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest in public 
accounting, and has a value of $750. 

The Robert A. and Margaret Pope Mclntyre Scholarship is awarded annually, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 



53 



The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of 
Nashville, Term., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to 
enter the field of literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full- 
time religious work. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Ga., is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, competitiveness, 
and citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif 
("Bif") Myers who died early in his freshman year at Wake Forest, awards one scholar- 
ship to a senior from Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., who best exemplifies the 
ideals and characteristics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the Roswell 
High School principal. 

The Myers Memorial Scholarship is awarded to pre-ministerial students or to students 
contributing to Christianity. 

The George Thompson Noel, M.D., Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
academic ability and financial need, with preference given to students from Cabar- 
rus County and North Carolina. The Noel Scholarship is renewable for succeeding 
school years, provided the recipient demonstrates continuing need and ranks in the 
top third of his or her class. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
N.C., in memory of his parents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are available to 
deserving and promising students needing financial assistance. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who 
are bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order 
to attend college, for a value up to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance a stu- 
dent may receive depends upon need, taking into account financial resources and 
the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Curtis Eugene Overby Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
financial need, and outstanding leadership potential to a North Carolina junior or 
senior majoring in communications, with an interest in broadcasting. Preference is 
given to students from Forsyth, Rockingham, and Caswell Counties. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, N.C., 
in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need and may 
be renewed for succeeding years. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist 
Foundation under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, 
N.C., make two or more scholarships available each year in memory of Mr. Pettus 
and are awarded on the basis of merit and need, with preference given to North 
Carolina Baptist students. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $4,000 per year, are available to eleven 
freshmen, one from each Congressional District of North Carolina, plus three scholar- 
ships at large from the state. To be eligible, a student must be an active member of 



54 



a Southern Baptist Church in North Carolina, must be likely to make a significant 
contribution to church and society, and must be appreciative of the quality of edu- 
cation available at Wake Forest University. A separate application is required by 
December 15. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to 
students from North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated by friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annually by the mathematics faculty. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in 
mathematics who has achieved junior standing. 

The Oliver D. and Caroline Revell Scholarship is awarded to needy pre-ministerial 
students or needy students entering full-time Christian service. 

William Royall Scholarship Fund, given by family and friends of William Royall, pro- 
vides a scholarship award for excellence in classical studies, with preference given 
to students planning to travel abroad to classical sites. Applications must be made 
to the Department of Classical Languages. 

The William Lee Rudd and Ruth Crosby Rudd Scholarship is awarded to worthy and 
needy students majoring in religion. 

The Sara ]o Broumlow Shearer Scholarship is awarded to students specializing in the 
area of learning disabilities. 

The W. D. Sanders Scholarship. Two scholarships, each in the amount of $2,000, are 
awarded annually for language study in Germany or Austria. Sophomores, juniors, 
or seniors who have completed German 153 or above are eligible, and the scholar- 
ships are designated, in order of priority, for summer language study, semester or 
year programs with the Institute of European Studies (IES), or junior year abroad 
programs with other institutions. Applications should be made to the Department 
of German and Russian. 

The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin 
R. Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who 
has debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate 
program. 

The James F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who 
plans a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and 
interest in the ministry 

The Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Patricia Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, is awarded annually to an applied music 
student on the basis of academic ability. It has a value of approximately $500. 
Applications must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
Forest Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory, N.C., in memory of Robert Forest Smith 
III, is awarded to an entering freshman who qualifies on the basis of need and distinc- 
tion in high school government. Preference is given to those who plan to enter govern- 
ment service, with strong preference given to students exemplifying positive Chris- 
tian principles. It has a value of $1,000. 

The Gilbert T Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W Stephenson in memory 



55 



of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby 
Township or Northampton County N.C. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Sternberger Foun- 
dation, are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate 
students from Greensboro and Guilford Counties. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in honor 
of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests in 
retailing or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or an upperclassman, 
with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother, J. W. Straughan, of Warsaw, N.C, with preference given 
to students from Duplin County, N.C. who are interested in pursuing a medical career 
(especially in the field of family practice), is for those who need financial assistance 
to continue their education. 

The Saddye Stephenson Scholarship and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated by 
Charles L. Sykes and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is award- 
ed on the basis of Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with 
preference given to freshmen from North Carolina, renewable. 

The Russell Taylor Scholarship is awarded to a high school senior with a distinguished 
record in citizenship and scholarship. Preference is given to students planning careers 
in the areas of religion or law, students exemplifying positive principles of the Chris- 
tian faith, needy students, and students from Iredell County N.C. 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor 
the late President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students 
enrolled in the College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Kenneth Monroe Tucker Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic merit, 
with preference given to students from Wilkes, New Hanover, or Brunswick Coun- 
ties, North Carolina. It may be renewed provided the recipient's cumulative average 
is in the upper 20 percent of his or her class. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available 
at least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The John W. Ward Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of demonstrated need, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Ware Foundation Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and finan- 
cial need, with preference given first to students from Oxford Orphanage or other 
children's homes and second to students from Granville or Vance Counties, N.C. 

The Watkins-Richardson Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential to students from the southeastern United States. 
Watkins-Richardson Scholarship awards are renewable for succeeding school years, 
provided the recipient ranks in the top third of his or her class and continues to display 
leadership potential. 

The Lettie Pate Whitehead Scholarships provide support to needy Christian women 
students from nine Southeastern states. 

The Alexander Hines Whitley Jr. Scholarship is awarded to qualified students selected 
by the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. 



56 



The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams 
of Union County, N.C., give preference to deserving students of Union County. 

The John G. Williard Scholarship is awarded to middle-income students, with 
preference given to students from Davie County, N.C. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, 
N.C, gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the ministry 
and Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. Applications must be 
made to the Department of Religion or Philosophy. 

The Maria Thornton and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James 
B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina 
Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is awarded 
on the basis of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson 
in memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a freshman. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W Wilson 
of Yancey County, N.C, are awarded to students from Yancey County who have 
excellent academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Phillip W. Wilson/Peat Marwick Memorial Scholarship, established as a memorial 
to Phillip W. Wilson by his friends, colleagues, and family, is awarded to a senior 
accountancy major who has demonstrated leadership skills, outstanding interper- 
sonal skills, and a strong commitment to the community and the accounting profes- 
sion. The recipient must also be in the top fifth of his or her class based on grade- 
point average within the School of Business and Accountancy. 

The William H. and Anne M. Woody Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis 
of character, scholastic achievement, and financial need, with preference given to 
students from Person County, N.C, and to students intending careers in medicine, 
education, or ministry. 

The William Luther Wyatt HI Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh, in memory of their son, William Luther Wyatt, III, with preference 
given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown an interest and an 
ability in the field of biology, is based on need and ability. 

The Matthew T. Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of 
missionaries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on 
the basis of merit and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid 
of his or her eligibility to be considered for this award. 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 

The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors six 
programs to help pay college costs. These programs are Pell Grants, Supplemental 
Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOG), College Work-Study (CWS), Perkins Loans, 
Stafford Loans (formerly Guaranteed Student Loans [GSL]), and PLUS Loans/Sup- 
plemental Loans for Students (SLS). To receive assistance through these programs, 
a student must complete the necessary applications, meet basic eligibility re- 
quirements, and maintain satisfactory academic progress. (See the statement in bold 
face on page 58.) The six programs are outlined as follows: 



57 



Pell Grants are federal funds awarded to undergraduate students with exceptional 
financial need who require these grants to attend college, for a value of up to $2,400 
per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive depends upon need, tak- 
ing into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants are available to a limited number 
of undergraduate students with exceptional financial need who require these grants 
to attend college and who show academic or creative promise, for a value from $100 
to $4,000 a year. The amount of federal assistance a student may receive depends 
upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the col- 
lege chosen. 

The College Work-Study Program makes on-campus employment available to students 
who show evidence of financial need. Students work during the academic year for 
federal minimum wage or above, at an average of ten to fifteen hours per week in 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Reynolda Hall, Student Union, Reynolda Gardens, 
and other places on campus. 

The Carl D. Perkins Loan Program (formerly National Direct Student Loans) makes 
available loans for students in need of financial assistance with an interest rate of 
5 percent. These are examples of typical repayment schedules: 



.ggregate Loan 


Quarterly 


Amount of 


Total Interest 


Total 




Payments 


Payment 


Paid 


Payment 


$2,500 


35 


$ 90.00 


$ 590.22 


$3,090.22 


5,000 


40 


159.61 


1,384.27 


6,384.27 


7,500 


40 


239.41 


2,076.44 


9,576.44 



Aggregate undergraduate sums may not exceed $4,500 for the first two years or 
$9,000 for four years, but may be extended to $18,000 for those who also borrow for 
graduate or professional study, with an interest rate of 5 percent. 

The Stafford Program makes available loans up to $2,625 for the first two years of 
undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent undergraduate study. Aggregate 
undergraduate sums may not exceed $17,250, but may be extended to $54,750 for those 
who also borrow for graduate or professional study. The maximum loan per year 
for graduate students is $7,500. Loans are insured by the federal government or 
guaranteed by a state or private nonprofit guarantee agency. The federal government 
pays the interest during in-school and grace periods. Applications and information 
may be obtained from state guarantee agencies or the financial aid office. 

The PLUS and Supplemental Loan Programs make available loans to parents and some 
undergraduate students. PLUS enables parents to borrow up to $4,000 per year, to 
a total of $20,000, for each child who is enrolled at least half-time and is a dependent 
student. Independent undergraduates may borrow up to $4,000 per year to a total 
of $20,000 from the Supplemental Loan Program. In exceptional circumstances, 
dependent undergraduates may also apply for a Supplemental Loan. Applications 
and information may be obtained from the state guarantee agencies or from the finan- 
cial aid office. 



58 



Financial aid under the Federal Title IV Program is available to eligible students 
enrolled in a course of study leading to a degree. Federal regulations specify that 
the student maintain satisfactory progress in order to receive federal financial aid. 
Wake Forest University policy on satisfactory academic progress for financial aid 
purposes is available upon request from the financial aid office. Students who do 
not meet the minimum requirements at the end of the spring semester may be 
allowed to continue with the permission of the Committee on Academic Affairs. 
Such students may be granted federal financial aid for a period of one additional 
semester. Failure to meet the stated minimum requirements will result in termina- 
tion of all federal financial aid. 

Exchange Scholarships 

The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of 
Berlin, is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the 
equivalent, who has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application 
is made, but who need not be a German major. It provides 750 German marks per 
month for ten months, remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 250 
marks per month for rent. (Interested students should communicate with the chair- 
man of the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the 
Andes in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogota 
scholarship may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to one 
student for two semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years of col- 
lege Spanish or the equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the cost 
of books, board, and accommodations. (Interested students should communicate with 
the chairman of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

The French Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Burgundy, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship 
at a lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with 
the chairman of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. and Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate 
of 1 percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repay- 
ment period. 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by 
the Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, N.C., is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T Council of Durham, is for the aid 
of senior students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, N.C., is available to qualified students, with preference given to students 
from North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and $10,000 dur- 
ing the entire period of enrollment. 



59 



The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of 
Wake County, N.C., in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, 
is limited to students from Duplin County, N.C. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial 
to the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh 
in memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit of worthy 
students who need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, gives preference to applicants from Davidson County, N.C. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, N.C, 
in memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy Jones 
Harris, is for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational advantages 
to the rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who require 
financial assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Hutchins Student Loan Fund, originated by Robert W. Hutchins Jr. on behalf of 
himself and his late wife, Nancy D. Hutchins of Winston-Salem, is in honor of 
members of the Hutchins' family who have attended Wake Forest and is for the benefit 
of needy undergraduate students. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 by Henry J. Langston of Danville, 
Va., in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor and 
the College. 

The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, 
is for worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who need financial 
assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh in memory of 
his parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy students, 
with preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, 
N.C, in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the First Baptist 
Church of Tarboro. 

The James F Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, 
N.C, is available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

The Sidney G. Wallace Loan Fund, created under the will of Mrs. Blanche Wallace, 
is used to assist undergraduate students. Preference is given to students studying 
in a Wake Forest-sponsored or approved overseas program. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (through October 1 in 
the fall and through the tenth day of classes in the spring) and complete a Residency 
Form 100. The student must not have received a bachelor's degree previously. To receive 
the grant, the student must also complete an NCLTG application and return it to 
the financial aid office by a specified deadline. 



60 



Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to 
repay the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve 
five years in the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 
concession per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionaries 
of the Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State Con- 
vention of North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or 
universities who are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a 
$150 concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and 
they have a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church 
to encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reli- 
ability, and interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee 
of the church and the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students 
should communicate with the chair of the Department of Music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is avail- 
able to pre-ministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and 
need, and, particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student /Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off- 
campus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time 
students. Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should 
communicate with the Office of Career Planning and Placement.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Office of the Veterans' Administration in 
the Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress 
are kept by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress records 
are furnished to the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of each 
scheduled school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College 
if they receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited 
to National Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service- 
sponsored scholarships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. 
This outside assistance will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 



61 

Special Programs 

Students in the College are encouraged to apply to special programs, both on and 
off campus, which correspond to their special abilities and interests. These include 
the special programs described below, and the special degrees, minors, and concen- 
trations described on page 65 and beyond. 

Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the 
freshman, sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with 
a superior record and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete 
a final directed study course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point 
average of 3.0 in all work, a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in 
the College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular 
discipline. The minimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 
3.3 (or higher in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research re- 
quirements vary from one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open Cur- 
riculum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the 
framework of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and divi- 
sional requirements for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, a 
limited number of students is selected before or during the freshman year by previous 
record of achievement, high aspirations, ability in one or more areas of study, strength 
of self-expression, and other special talents. The course of study for the degree is 
designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. 
An application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College 
or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of private 
instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points earned 
at Salem College are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 



62 

International Studies 



Office of International Studies 

The Office of International Studies provides information on all programs in inter- 
national studies. Students interested in studying abroad should visit the office for 
assistance and program approval. Any student taking non-Wake Forest courses 
overseas for either the summer, semester, or year needs to come by the office for 
program approval and to get a transfer of credit form. The office also administers 
the international studies minor. For a full description of the minor see page 70. 

International Students 

International students can obtain information and assistance in the Office of the 
Dean of the College. 

Residential Language Centers 

For students prepared to speak French, German, Italian, or Russian on a regular 
basis with other students studying the same language, the University offers residen- 
tial language centers coordinated by members of the Romance languages department 
and the German and Russian department. Such students attend regular classes on 
the campus. Organized social and conversational programs are available in all these 
languages. 

International Studies House 

Students interested in international studies who would like to live with other 
students sharing these interests may apply to live in the International Studies House. 
Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a full description 
of these programs, see page 71. 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

London 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's 
residential center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects 
of the art, theatre, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for 
example, Art 2320: English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260: History of 
London, in the course listings of those departments.) Each term a different member 
of the faculty serves as the director of the program, which accommodates sixteen 
students. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 



63 



Venice 

For students wishing to spend a semester in Italy, a program of study is available 
at Casa Artom, the University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. 
Directed by various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students focus on 
the heritage and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693: 
Venetian Renaissance Art, Italian 153: Intermediate Italian, Italian 215: Introduction to Italian 
Literature I, Italian 216: Introduction to Italian Literature II, and other courses offered 
by the faculty member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program 
are normally required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited 
scholarship aid is available to one or two students each semester to assist with ex- 
penses. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

France 

For students wishing to study in France, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Burgundy. Under the direction of a faculty residential 
adviser from the Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the Univer- 
sity of Burgundy by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French 
is not required, but French 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain 

For students wishing to study in Spain, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Salamanca. Under the direction of a faculty residen- 
tial adviser from the Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the 
University of Salamanca by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A ma- 
jor in Spanish is not required, but Spanish 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Institute of European Studies 

For students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German-speaking country 
or the USSR, programs of study are available through the Institute of European 
Studies. Qualified Wake Forest applicants may study during their junior or senior 
year in Freiburg, Germany or Vienna, Austria. Two new exchange programs also are 
possible, one in Kiev and the other in Moscow. As with other Wake Forest programs, 
students receive direct credit for all courses taken with I.E.S. and may apply any form 
of financial aid available to them here on campus to their program of study. Interested 
students should contact the Department of German and Russian. 

China 

Students who wish to study in China may apply to participate in the Wake 
Forest/SASASAAS program in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. Offered only in 
the fall semester, the program includes courses in both Chinese language and culture. 
It is open to students with no previous knowledge of Chinese or to those wishing 
to continue their study of the language. Further information may be obtained in the 
Office of International Studies. 



64 



Japan 

For students wishing to study in Japan, Wake Forest offers a fall semester (only) 
with Tokai University outside Tokyo. Coursework will focus on Japanese language 
and culture: one course will be taught by a Wake Forest professor, another course 
will be taught by Japanese faculty (in English) on various aspects of Japanese society 
and the last course will be the Japanese language. Although no knowledge of Japanese 
is necessary, priority will be given to those who have had at least one year of Japanese. 
Contact the Office of International Studies for more information. 

USSR 

For students wishing to study in the Soviet Union, an exchange agreement with 
Moscow State University now makes it possible. The basic requirements are a good 
academic record and the ability to attend and pass classes that are taught entirely 
in Russian. Contact the Department of German and Russian for more information. 

Experiment in International Living 

The Independent Study Program of the Experiment in International Living is 
recognized by the College. To participate in this program, a student must be regularly 
enrolled and plan to return to the College after study abroad; arrangements must 
be made with the chair of the department of the major and the director of the Office 
of International Studies. Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program may be 
granted upon evidence of satisfactory completion of work taken, but this is subject 
to evaluation by the dean of the College. 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 

Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program should visit the 
Office of International Studies for assistance. The office houses a sizable collection 
of material on a wide variety of overseas programs. 

All non-Wake Forest programs must be approved in advance by the Office of 
International Studies. A transfer credit form will need to be filled out once accepted 
into a program. The form is available in the Office of International Studies. Transfer 
credit is computed at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour and .75 for each 
quarter hour taken abroad. Students in programs other than those offered by Wake 
Forest must apply for readmission to the University. Scholarship and financial aid 
now can be carried into non-Wake Forest "approved" programs. Further information 
is available in the Office of International Studies. 



65 

Requirements for Degrees 

Degrees Offered 

The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and 
bachelor of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major 
in anthropology, art, chemistry, classical studies, economics, English, French, French- 
Spanish, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, 
psychology, religion, sociology, Spanish, or speech communication and theatre arts. 
The bachelor of science degree is conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, com- 
puter science, health and sport science, mathematical economics, mathematics, or 
physics. The bachelor of arts degree is available with a major in elementary educa- 
tion or education with a state teacher's certificate in social studies. The bachelor of 
science degree is available with a major in education with a state teacher's certificate 
in science. The bachelor of science degree may be conferred in combined curricula 
in dentistry, engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medical technology, 
microbiology, and the physician assistant program. The School of Business and 
Accountancy offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of science degree 
with a major in accountancy or business. (See page 193 of this bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
thereafter receive the other of the two degrees. 

General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their courses of 
study. Except for two semesters of required health and sport science courses, only 
three specific courses are required, one in English composition and two in a foreign 
language. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or fields, 
students select three courses in each of four divisions of the undergraduate curriculum: 
(1) literature and the arts; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, religion, 
and philosophy; and (4) the social and behavioral sciences. Normally the basic and 
divisional requirements are completed in the freshman and sophomore years and 
the requirements in the field or fields of the major are completed in the junior and 
senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless 
accepted for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the depart- 
ment or departments of the major, and (3) elective courses for a total of 144 credits. 
No more than sixteen credits toward graduation may be earned from among all of 
the following courses: Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-123 
(ensemble courses); and elective 100-level courses in health and sport science. 

AH students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and univer- 
sities and on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must be com- 
pleted in the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work 
of the senior year (except for combined degree curricula). 



66 



A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin 
of the year in which he or she enters, provided that course work is completed within 
six years of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements of the 
class in which he or she graduates. 

Basic Requirements 

All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

English 110 (composition) or 112 (composition and literature) 
Foreign language 153 (intermediate level) 
Foreign language (literature) 

French 213, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 214, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian 215 or 216 

Greek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Hebrew 211 

Japanese 211 

Chinese 211 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permission 
to earn such credit by the Language Placement Appeals Board. 

Divisional Requirements 

All students must complete three courses in each of the four divisions of the 
undergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or by participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature and the Arts (three courses; no more than one course from any 
one of the four groups) 

1. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic requirement) 
Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 

Classics 253, 254, 263, 264, 265, or 272 
German 215 or 216 
Chinese 211 
Japanese 211 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian 215 or 216 
Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, or 222 



67 



4. Fine Arts 
Art 103 or 111 
Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 
Theatre Arts 121 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (any one; if two, may be any two taken 
in any order) 

2. Chemistry 111, 116 (unless advanced preparation indicates a higher 
course); if one course, 111; if two courses, 111, 116. 

3. Physics 101, 109, 110, 113, 114 (Physics 101 may not be paired with 
any other physics course) 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 173 (any one; 
if two, the pair must include 108 or 111 but not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion (any 100-level course) 

3. Philosophy 111, 171, or 172 

Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 111 and one additional course 
selected from the 100-series of health and sport science courses. The requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, 
and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 

Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a re- 
quirement in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade 
for any course, may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is 
unsatisfactory, regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer 
students is checked during the orientation period each term, and students whose 
writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For removal of a composition 
condition, the student is required to attempt English 11 during the first semester for 
which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal of the deficiency 
is prerequisite to graduation. 



68 



Basic and Divisional Requirements 

The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to 
various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject and related fields during the junior and senior years. For this reason, as many 
of the requirements as feasible should be taken in the freshman and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of 
the faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The normal 
time for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sophomore year. 
Thirty days before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have acquired 
the requisite credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer school 
is required to indicate to the registrar and to the department or departments con- 
cerned the selection of a major for concentration during the junior and senior years. 
Before this selection is recorded by the registrar, the student must present a written 
statement from the authorized representative of the department or departments in- 
dicating that the student has been accepted as a candidate for the major in that depart- 
ment. An adviser is available to assist the student in planning a course of study for 
the junior and senior years. A department which rejects a student as a major must 
file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating the reason(s) for the 
rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she 
will begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult 
the registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business or in accountancy should make applica- 
tion to the School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 193 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields 
to accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the 
undergraduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major 
field or a given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits 
to both faculty and facilities. 

After the beginning of the junior year, a student may not change from one major 
to another without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course 
of study for the junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the 
departmental major, with other courses selected by the student and approved by the 
adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accountancy, 
anthropology, art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, computer science, 
economics, education, English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, health and 
sport science, history, Latin, mathematical economics, mathematics, music, 
philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, and 



69 



speech communication and theatre arts. Students preparing for the ministry are 
advised to elect three courses in religion beyond the course included in the divisional 
requirements. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 

Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed 
within the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation 
are allowed in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except 
for those double-majoring within the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; for students 
majoring in mathematics and minoring in computer science, Mathematics 111 and 
112; and, for students majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that 
language. These limits may be exceeded in unusual circumstances only by action of 
the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 

For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and 
only one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the 
student's permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major 
and a minor, (4) a double major. In addition to the options above, a student may complete 
the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 

A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permis- 
sion of the chair of each of the departments and on condition that the student meet 
all requirements for the major in both departments. For administrative purposes, the 
student must designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears 
first on the student's record. For purposes of the double major only, the Department 
of Mathematics and Computer Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in 
classical studies, in mathematical economics, and in French-Spanish. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major— not 
those working toward a double or joint major— may choose a minor field from among 
the following: anthropology, art, biology, chemistry, computer science, educational 
studies, professional education, English, French language and culture, French litera- 
ture, German, Greek, health and sport science, history, Italian, Latin, mathematics, 
music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish 
language and culture, Hispanic literature, and speech communication and theatre arts. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in 
the section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 



70 



Interdisciplinary Minors 

A Minor in Cultural Resource Preservation. The Departments of Anthropology, Art, 
History, and Sociology offer an interdisciplinary minor in cultural resource preser- 
vation (CRP) which will introduce students to the fields of historic preservation and 
cultural resource management which aim at the protection and enhancement of 
archeological, historical, landscape, and architectural resources. 

The minor requires Studies in Historic Preservation (History 366) and four other courses 
for a total of twenty credits. The courses must be distributed among at least three 
departments. The following courses may be included in the minor: Anthropology 
152, General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology (may count as a Division IV re- 
quirement); Anthropology 300, Museum Practicum; Anthropology 310, Museum Design 
and Operation; Anthropology 370, Old 'World Prehistory; Anthropology 374, Prehistory 
of North America; Anthropology 378, Conservation Archeology; Anthropology 381/382, 
Archeological Research; Art 233, American Architecture; Art 275, History of Landscape Ar- 
chitecture; Art 288, Modern Architecture; Art 293, Practicum; History 381/382 Preserva- 
tion Practicum I, II; History 398, Individual Study; Sociology 151, Principles of Sociology 
(may count as Division IV requirement); Sociology 205, Photography in the Social 
Sciences; Sociology 333, The Urban Community. 

Students intending to minor in cultural resource preservation should consult the 
adviser appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the 
registrar. Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the first semester 
of their junior year. Equivalent courses must be approved by the adviser. Successful 
completion of the minor in cultural resource preservation will be noted on the stu- 
dent's transcript. 

A Minor in International Studies. The minor in international studies consists of a total 
of twenty credits. Candidates for the minor are required to take Politics 116, Interna- 
tional Politics, and one of the following: Economics 251, International Trade; Economics 
252, International Finance; Economics 253, Economics of Communism; Economics 254, 
Capitalism and Planning; or Politics 253, The Politics of International Economic Relations. 
In addition, students must take twelve other credits in international studies from an 
approved list on file in the Office of International Studies. No more than eight of the 
twenty credits for the minor may be taken in a single department. Study of a foreign 
language beyond the basic requirement is strongly recommended. Formal advising of 
minors is not required but the Office of International Studies is responsible for certify- 
ing the successful completion of requirements for the minor. For more information, 
contact the Office of International Studies. 

A Minor in Women's Studies. The interdisciplinary minor in women's studies requires 
a core course (Humanities 121) and five other courses. At least two of the five courses 
must be in the humanities and two must be in the social sciences, and the courses 
must be distributed among at least three departments, for a total of twenty-four credits. 
It is recommended that one of these courses be the upper division seminar, Humanities 
321. This structure gives students an understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of 
women's studies within the context of the traditional liberal arts curriculum. A stu- 
dent minoring in women's studies might take Humanities 121 as a sophomore, one 
humanities and one social science course as a junior, and Humanities 321, another 
humanities course, and another social science course as a senior. 



71 



The following courses may be included in the minor: 

Humanities: Art 251, Women and Art; Classics 252, Women in Antiquity; English 340, 
Women and Literature; English 376, American Poetry from 1855 to 1900; History 365, 
Women in American History; Music 208, Women and Music; Religion 334B, Feminist 
Theology; Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 357, The Rhetoric of the Women's 
Rights Movement. 

Social Sciences: Psychology 265, Human Sexuality; Psychology 270L, Sex Stereotypes 
and Roles; Psychology 358, Psychology of Women; Sociology 153, Marriage and the Fami- 
ly; Sociology 305, Male and Female Roles in Society; Sociology 309, Sex and Human 
Relationships; Sociology 311, Women in Professions. 

Students intending to minor in women's studies should consult the adviser appointed 
from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. Students are 
strongly urged to consult the adviser during the sophomore year. Successful comple- 
tion of the minor in women's studies will be noted on the student's transcript. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary con- 
centration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concentration 
may include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is chosen. 
Foreign area studies do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement either 
or both. A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and advises 
interested students. Further questions may be directed to the Office of International 
Studies. These programs are currently available: 

East European Studies. Coordinator, Perry Patterson (Economics) 

Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following: 

four additional credits in Russian at the 200 level, History 331, History 332, Politics 

232, Economics 253, Anthropology 350, Humanities 215, Humanities 218, and 

relevant seminars, colloquia, or independent studies in any of the departments 

above. 

German Studies. Coordinator, Larry E. West (German/Russian) 
Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 215, 216, 217, 220, or 221 are required. 
In addition, the student should take four courses from the following groups, at 
least one from each group: (1) History 320 and History 318/ German 231; (2) Politics 
233 and 273; (3) Philosophy 241 and 242. Appropriate credit in the above areas 
may be obtained by study in Germany. 

Italian Studies. Coordinator, Antonio Vitti (Romance languages) 
Italian through the 215 level is required, plus three courses from the following 
groups, at least one each from 2 and 3. (1) Literature: Italian 216 (or any Italian 
course above 215), Classics 251, Classics 272, and Religion 277; (2) Fine Arts: Art 
245, 267, 268, 296C, and 2693; and Music 181, 201, 206, 220, and 221; Humanities 
357, 382, 383; (3) History and the Social Sciences: Classics 271; History 221, 222, 
223, and 398. Appropriate courses in religion, politics, economics, anthropology, 
sociology, and psychology taught in the Venice program, and individual study 



72 



courses in those departments (appropriate topics). A semester in Venice or another 
approved course of study in Italy also is required. 

Latin American Studies. Coordinators, Mary Friedman and Linda Maier (Romance 

languages) 

History 375, Politics 236, and Spanish 218 and 223 are required, plus twelve credits 

from the following: History 373, 374, Economics 252, Politics 235, 257, Politics 292 

if the topic pertains to Latin America, Spanish 219, 263, 264, 265, 266, and 

Humanities 384. It is recommended that students take Spanish 263, 264, 265 or 

266 to fulfill the foreign literature requirement in Division I. 

Spanish Studies. Coordinator, Kathleen Glenn (Romance languages) 
History 2019, Sociology 2029, Spanish 217, and Spanish 224 are required, plus twelve 
credits from the advanced courses in Spanish language and literature offered by 
the Department of Romance Languages or from the courses offered at the Univer- 
sity of Salamanca. Students are required to participate in the semester in Spain 
program at Salamanca. 

Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide ob- 
jective evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic 
achievement such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other 
tests deemed appropriate by the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are 
administered during the spring semester, and relevant results are made available to 
the student for his or her information. The primary purpose of the program is to pro- 
vide the University with information for assessing the total educational process. The 
program does not supplant the regular administration of the Graduate Record Examina- 
tion for students applying for admission to graduate school. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and 
by satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the 
Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade 
of at least C is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. 
At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed 
in the College. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the 
baccalaureate degree in August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the 
junior year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. 
Selection is based upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied 
Health Professions Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, 
and work experience (not essential, but important). Students must complete the basic 
course requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; 
the health and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (three courses 
or equivalents); Biology 326; Chemistry 111, 112, 221, and 222; mathematics (one 



73 



course); and electives for a total of 108 credits. Desirable electives outside the area of 
chemistry and biology include physics, data processing, and personnel and manage- 
ment courses. (Interested students should consult a biology department faculty member 
during the freshman year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in the physician assistant 
program by completion of three years (108 credits) in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full twenty-four-month course 
in the physician assistant program offered by the Division of Allied Health Programs 
of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the 
required academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree 
must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, the 
health and sport science requirement, and at least four courses in biology (including 
one course in microbiology). At least four courses in the social sciences (including 
sociology, psychology, and economics), a course in statistics, and three or four courses 
in chemistry are recommended. Applicants to the program must have a minimum of 
six months of clinical experience in patient care services. (Interested students should 
consult a biology department faculty member during the freshman year for further 
information.) 

Degrees in Microbiology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in microbiology by comple- 
tion of three years (112 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade of C, 
and by satisfactory completion of a thirty-two hour major in microbiology in the Bowman 
Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic 
work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must complete the 
basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, and the health and sport 
science requirement; Microbiology 302, 304 (or Biology 462), and Biology 371. Addi- 
tional courses to complete the major will be selected from Microbiology 402, 403, 404, 
405, 408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 432, 433, 434, Biology 321, 360, 372, 373, 380, and 391, 392. 
Required related courses are two courses in physics and at least two courses in organic 
chemistry. Additional chemistry and mathematics courses may be suggested by the 
major adviser for students progressing toward advanced work in microbiology. The 
student should consult the microbiology adviser during the sophomore year to establish 
a program of study. Work on the major must begin no later than the fall semester of 
the junior year. 

Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a ma- 
jor in dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimurn 
average grade of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in one 
of certain approved dental schools designated by the University, with a record entitl- 
ing advancement to the third-year class. 

For this degree, the requirements in the College are the same as those for the degree 
with a major in medical sciences. 



74 



Degrees in Engineering 

The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineering 
schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five 
years of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in 
one of the schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be ad- 
visable for a student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after 
transfer.) Admission to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineering 
school. Those decisions are based on the student's transcript, performance, and status 
at the time of application. Upon successful completion of the five years of study, the 
student receives the bachelor of science degree in engineering from the University and 
the bachelor of science degree in one of the specialized engineering fields from the 
engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three years must include the basic and divisional 
requirements. Suggested courses for the freshman year are English 110 and 160 (or 
a foreign literature); foreign language courses 211, 215, or 216; Mathematics 111, 112; 
Physics 113, 114; and Health and Sport Science 111, 112. Suggested courses for the 
sophomore year are English 170 (or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathematics 
301 or 251; Physics 141, 161, and 164; and Chemistry 111, 112. Suggested courses for 
the junior year are a history course, a religion course, Mathematics 302, and Economics 
150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. Elec- 
tives are chosen in consultation with the chair of the Department of Physics. 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 

The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and 
Environmental Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of ear- 
ning both bachelor's and master's degrees within five years. For details about the pro- 
gram, students should consult a faculty member in the biology department. 



75 

Courses of Instruction 

Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the academic 
year 1990-91, unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through March 16, 1991. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is shown 
by numerals immediately after the course title— for example, (3) or (3,3). The symbols 
P— and C— followed by course numbers or titles are used to show prerequisites and 
corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; courses 200-299 are 
primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced undergraduates 
and graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the bulletin of the 
Graduate School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the bulletin of the summer 
session.) 



Anthropology 

David S. Weaver, Chairman 

Professors E. Pendleton Banks, David K. Evans, 

Stanton K. Tefft, David S. Weaver, J. Ned Woodall 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/Assistant Professor Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Professor Jay R. Kaplan 

Visiting Assistant Professor Dorothy J. Cattle 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must in- 
clude Anthropology 151, 152, 390, and either 370 or 374. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive 
field research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and 
four credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. 
Additional courses are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the 
time the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropolo- 
gy courses is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include 
Anthropology 151 and 152. Minors will not receive credit for Anthropology 390, 398, 
or 399. Only four credits from Anthropology 335, 381, 382, 383, and 384 may be used 
to meet minor requirements and departmental permission must be obtained for minor 
credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 
must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 
defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 



76 



151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during 
the Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis 
of human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and 
human nature. 

300. Museum Practicum. (4) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Anthropology in six basic areas of museum operation: 
administration, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and edu- 
cation. P— Permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and oper- 
ation through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, and 
field trips to neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students have 
an opportunity to put some of the principles in practice by planning and designing 
exhibits in the Museum of Anthropology. P— Permission of instructor. 

320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal cul- 
tures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

330. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic documen- 
tary films and videos from different historical periods and by filmmakers from different 
cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural perspective 
on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and aesthetic aspects 
of film and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual communication 
in conveying ideas about culture and society. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 
152 or permission of instructor. 

335. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North 
Carolina in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

340. Anthropological Theory. (4) A study and evaluation of the major anthropologi- 
cal theories of humans and society, including cultural evolutionism, historical par- 
ticularism, functionalism, structuralism, cultural ecology, and cultural materialism. 
The relevance and significance of these theories to modern anthropology are dis- 
cussed. P— Anthropology 151 and 152 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. 

345. Primitive Religion. (4) The world-view and values of non-literate cultures as 
expressed in myths, rituals, and symbols. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

350. European Peasant Communities. (4) Lectures, reading, and discussion on selected 
communities and their sociocultural contexts, including folklore, folk art, and processes 
of culture change. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 or permission of 
instructor. 



77 



352. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south 
of the Sahara. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

354. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) A survey of the Han and non-Han (Mon- 
golian, Tibetan, Shan, Mia, etc.) peoples of China and their traditional cultures 
drawing on ethnographic and village studies. P— Permission of instructor. 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. 
P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

360. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic 
and organic environments as mediated by culture; laboratory experience with aerial 
photography and other remote sensing techniques. P— Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152 or permission of instructor. 

362. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory 
on non-Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world 
health problems. P— Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

364. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology human 
biology, evolution, and variability. P— Anthropology 151. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P— Anthropology 151 and permission 
of instructor. 

368. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, em- 
phasizing archeological and anthropological applications. P-Anthropology 151 and 
permission of instructor. 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular atten- 
tion to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P— Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

372. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of 
early complex societies, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, and Teotihuacan 
cultures in Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North 
America; and Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis 
will be given to theories of origins and change in complex societies. P— Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America 
as outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and so- 
ciocultural processes. P-Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

376. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adapta- 
tion in the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of eco- 
logical factors in determining the formal aspects of culture. P— Anthropology 151. 



78 



378. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, programs, 
and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural resources. 
P— Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 359 or permission of instructor. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in 
anthropological research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Biology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through 
the use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a prehistoric site. 
P— Anthropology 151. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for 
the study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P— Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P— Permission of instructor. 

390. Senior Seminar. (4) A review of the contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P— Senior standing or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under 
the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Harry B. Titus Jr., Chairman 

Reynolds Professor Terisio Pignatti (Venice) 

Professors Robert Knott, Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors David L. Faber, Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Assistant Professors Bernadine Barnes, Page H. Laughlin 

Visiting Assistant Professor David Finn 

Visiting Instructors Richard P. Faude, Margaret C. Gregory, Alix Hitchcock 

Lecturers Brian Allen (London), David Bindman 

Assistant Lecturer Katie Scott (London) 

Gallery Director Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, sculpture, and photography. The program is designed to 
introduce students to the visual arts within the context of liberal arts study. The courses 
are intended to increase the student's understanding of the meaning and purpose 
of the arts, their historical developments, their role in society, and their relationship 
to other humanistic disciplines. Work in both classroom and studio is designed to 
intensify the student's visual perception and to develop a facility in a variety of tech- 



79 



nical processes. A visiting artist program and varied exhibitions in the gallery of the 
Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural organizations supple- 
ment the regular academic program of the department. 

The major in art requires forty credits. For an art history major, eight courses are 
to be in art history and two in studio art. For a studio art major, eight courses are 
to be in studio art and two in art history. 

A minor in art requires five courses, including at least one course in art history 
and one course in studio art. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of 
the art department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate 
in the department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors 
in Art," students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results 
of their efforts must be presented and defended before a committee of the depart- 
mental faculty. Interested students should consult any member of the department 
for additional information concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of vari- 
ous cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. 
Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

231. American Art. (4) A survey of American painting and sculpture from the Colonial 
period through the Armory Show held in 1913 in New York. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the pre- 
historic through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (3) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the pre- 
historic through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

246. Greek and Roman Architecture. (4) A survey of classical architecture, from the 
Archaic Greek through the late Roman period. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women 
in art and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance 
through the twelfth century. 



80 



253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and 
the sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) Medieval illuminated manuscripts and 
precious objects made of gold, silver, ivory, enamel, and other luxury materials are 
the subjects of this course. 

258. The History of Prints. (4) A survey of the technical and stylistic developments 
in printmaking from the fifteenth century to the present. Special attention will be 
given to the function of prints in society. Student research will focus on prints in 
the University Print Collection. 

267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) An introduction to the painting, sculpture, 
and architecture of Italy from 1250 to 1500, with a concentration on the arts in fifteenth 
century Florence. 

268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) A study of the arts in sixteenth 
century Italy, with emphasis on the achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Titian, and the dissolution of Renaissance idealism in 
the art of the early Mannerists. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, graphic art, and 
patronage in Northern European art from 1300 to the death of Diirer in 1528. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered 
in Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Modern Art to 1900. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1700 
to 1900, emphasizing the nineteenth century. 

282. Modern Art after 1900. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A detailed study of the French Impressionist painters, with 
some consideration of Impressionism in other forms. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 



81 



293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the 
art department. Pass/fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty 
on topics of their choice. A paper is required. P— Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art h. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art 

2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, 
student reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in 
London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, 
with slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk 
and tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Drawing and Design. (4) An introduction to the basic elements 
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional design, to include drawing, painting, and 
sculpture. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a var- 
iety of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic medium. P— Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and multi- 
media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P— Art 111. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the following 
areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P— Art 111. 

119. Introduction to Photography. (4) An introduction to photography as an expres- 
sive medium, including basic camera and darkroom techniques. Preference to art 
majors. Not open to students who have had Sociology 205. P— Art 111. 

211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated empha- 
sis on drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, 
emphasizing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P— Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated empha- 
sis on idea development. P— Art 112. May be repeated. 



Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor 



82 



215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea de- 
velopment. P— Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P— Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. P— Art 111. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P— Art 215. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P— Art 217. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice and related studio activities. P— Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 

Janice B. Bardsley, Coordinator 

The Asian Studies program, established in 1960 with financial assistance from the 
Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation, is interdisciplinary and involves the coopera- 
tion and resources of several departments in the humanities and social sciences. Its 
objectives are to broaden the traditional curriculum with the infusion of a systematic 
knowledge and understanding of the culture of Asia. 

Art 221. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the 
sacred and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Muslim art in India. 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills in Mandarin. Brief introduction to the writing system and to basic 
sentence patterns. Lab— one hour. 

Chinese 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation and composition. Lab required. P— Chinese 111, 112, or equivalent. 

Chinese 211. Introduction to Modern Chinese Literature. (4) Readings in modern 
prose and poetry, primarily from the May Fourth era to the present. Comparison 
of modern written Chinese with classical literary and documentary styles. P— Chinese 
152 or permission of instructor. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

History 339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images 
of India, its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, 



83 



Forster, Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, 
accommodation, and nostalgia. 

History 342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) 

Major subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and 
Persians under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence 
of the modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

History 343. Imperial China. (4) Development of traditional institutions in Chinese 
society to 1644; attention to social, cultural, and political factors, emphasizing 
continuity and resistance to change. 

History 344. Modern China. (4) The Manchu Dynasty and its response to the Western 
challenge, the 1911 Revolution, the warlord era and the rise of the Communists, 
Chinese Communist society, and the Cultural Revolution. 

History 345, 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to 
the history and civilization of South Asia, with emphasis on historical developments 
in the social, economic, and cultural life of the area. 

History 348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization 
and urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the 
contemporary world. 

Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama, 
and fiction from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

Humanities 221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions 
in fiction, drama, and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a 
Division I requirement. 

Humanities 347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classi- 
cal, modern, and contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an explanation 
of the cultural setting in which they occurred. 

Humanities 348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) The dark side of tradi- 
tional society that sparked revolution and civil war; forces that led to dissent and 
student movements. 

Humanities 349. Chinese Liberation Literature Since 1948. (2) The literary background 
of the democracy movement and the Tiananmen Square incident. 

Japanese 111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of 
listening and speaking skills. Brief introduction to the writing systems. Basic sen- 
tence patterns covered. Lab required. 

Japanese 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P— Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Japanese 199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of instructor. 



84 



Japanese 211. Introduction to Modern Japanese Literature. (4) Readings in modern 
prose and poetry, primarily from the Meiji era (1868) to the present. P— Japanese 152 
or permission of the instructor. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

Politics 245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments 
of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon; emphasis on political organizations, party struc- 
tures, and sub-national governmental systems. 

Religion 360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu tra- 
dition. 

Religion 361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental 
features, and its impact on the cultures of Asia. 

Religion 364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought 
and the historical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporary im- 
pact of the teachings of Islam are considered. 



Biology 

Gerald W. Esch, Chairman 

Professors Ralph D. Amen, Ronald V. Dimock Jr., 

Gerald W. Esch, Mordecai J. Jaffe, Raymond E. Kuhn, 

Peter D. Weigl, Raymond L. Wyatt 

Associate Professors Nina Stromgren Allen, Carole L. Browne, 

Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, Herman E. Eure, 

Hugo C. Lane, Wayne L. Silver 

Assistant Professors James F. Curran, Ellen L. Simms 

Visiting Assistant Professor Jack K. Harris 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Harold O. Goodman, 

Terry C. Hazen, Stephen H. Richardson 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Margaret Mulvey, John M. Aho 

At the end of the sophomore year, a student electing to major in biology meets 
with a major adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The 
requirements for completion of the major are those in effect at the time of confer- 
ence, since the curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly during 
the student's period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 112, 113, 
114, in any order, and at least three 300-level 5-credit biology courses. Co-major 
requirements are Chemistry 111 and 116 and two additional courses in the physical 
sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirements for a major are a 
minimum of forty -one credits in biology. A minimum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation with a major 
in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should consult with a 
biology major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 



85 



A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken pass/fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select their first course in biology from 
among Biology 112, 113 and 114 (any order). Most prospective majors also should 
take Chemistry 111-116 as freshmen; the majority continue with Chemistry 221 and 
222 (organic chemistry) as sophomores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in 
mathematics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology. The adviser calls these 
to the attention of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in 
Biology," they must complete a research project under the direction of a staff mem- 
ber and pass a comprehensive oral examination. 

All 300-level courses have the 112-114 series as prerequisites. Any exceptions to 
this arrangement must be approved by the chairman of the department. 

111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 
focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count 
for major credit in biology, but is intended for students with little or no previous 
experience in biology. Lab— three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of 
organisms, with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical 
function of plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for 
prospective majors and for any students with adequate high school preparation in 
biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and 
communities, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. 
Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any stu- 
dents with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No 
prerequisites. 

114. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and process- 
es of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular struc- 
tures, energetics, metabolism, and regulation of cellular functions. Intended as a 
beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with adequate 
high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

301-305. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, 
some involving laboratory instruction. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of principles of inheritance, population genetics, and the 
molecular mechanisms of gene activity. Laboratory work in the methods of genetic 



86 



analysis with emphasis on compiling and presenting data. Lab— three hours. P— 
Biology 112-114. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolu- 
tion. P— Biology 112-114. 

315. Biology of Stress. (4) A study of the ways in which plants and animals react 
to and cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Foci include mechanisms at the ecologi- 
cal, organismic, cellular, and molecular levels. P— Biology 112-114. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of chordate animals, with emphasis on com- 
parative anatomy and phylogeny Dissection of representative forms in the laboratory. 
Lab— four hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from 
the standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite relation- 
ships. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal be- 
havior. (May count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at regis- 
tration.) P— Permission of instructor. 

325. Plant Anatomy. (5) A study of comparative anatomy of the vascular plants, with 
emphasis on phylogeny. Lab— four hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on bacteria. Some immunological processes are considered. Lab— four 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis 
on structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogeny. Lab— four hours. P— Biology 
112-114. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on function- 
al morphology behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 
112-114. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and 
experimental studies. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior, and ecology of insects. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

338. Plant Taxonomy. (5) A study of the classification of seed plants, with emphasis 
on the comparative study of orders and families. Lab— four hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecolo- 
gy. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 



87 



341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab— three hours. P— 
Biology 112-114. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and con- 
cepts of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A 
major portion of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

344. Evolutionary Theory. (4) Lectures, readings, and seminars on the scientific and 
philosophic implications of evolutionary theory, including: structure and content of 
evolutionary theory, role of chance in evolution, units-of-selection controversy, nature 
of populations, nature of species, nature of selection, adaptation, sociobiology, and 
the evolutionism/creationism debates. P— Biology 112-114. 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous sys- 
tems. P— Biology 112-114. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous sys- 
tem including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochem- 
ical approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous 
systems. The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with 
experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab— three hours. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

350. Physiology. (5) A lecture/laboratory course dealing with the physiochemical func- 
tions common to multicellular organisms, with emphasis on the principles and 
processes of nutrition, metabolism, development, and behavior. Lab— three hours. 
P-Biology 112-114. 

351. Animal Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course which discusses and 
demonstrates the principles of bioelectricity and biomechanics. Regulatory princi- 
ples and the physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems of ver- 
tebrates are covered. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant sys- 
tems function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab— three hours. 
P— Biology 112-114. 

354. Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the 
endocrine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways 
of vertebrates. P— Biology 112-114. 

355. Developmental Physiology. (5) The application of the principles and postulates 
of molecular biology to the phenomenon of development in multicellular organisms 
with emphasis on the genetic and hormonal mechanisms of differentiation, toti- 
potency, and morphogenesis. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 



359. Photobiology. (4) A lecture/seminar exploring photochemical mechanisms and 
ecological roles common to a variety of photoresponses in living organisms, including 
vision, bioluminescence, phototaxis, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, and photomor- 
phogenesis. P— Biology 112-114. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special atten- 
tion is given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also 
given to other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertiliza- 
tion, early development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes 
in development, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and 
cancer. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. P— Biology 112-114. 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A study of the nature of energy in the environment, and 
how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, physiological, 
biochemical, and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of sensory 
mechanisms in plants and animals. P— Biology 112-114. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in 
and of cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve 
transport). Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and 
biophysical approaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab— three 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or 
anthropology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P— Permission of 
instructor. 

370. Biochemistry. (4) A lecture course introducing the principles of biochemistry 
with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Included are 
surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; techniques 
in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macromolecular or- 
ganization. P— Biology 112-114. 

371. Biochemistry. (5) A lecture and laboratory course introducing the principles of 
biochemistry with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. 
Included are surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; 
techniques in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macro- 
molecular organization. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

372. Molecular Biology. (4) A lecture course that considers the role of biologically 
important molecules in membrane and intracellular regulation. Topics covered will 
include membrane receptors, transport processes, molecular models of hormonal regu- 
lation, and controls of gene expression. P— Biology 112-114. 



89 



373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the electron micro- 
scope as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques 
used in the field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultrastruc- 
ture. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

375. Optical Methods in Biological Sciences. (5) Methods in light and electron 
microscopy including specimen preparation, image generation and recording. Stu- 
dents will learn the basic techniques of photography (developing and printing), fixa- 
tion and sectioning of specimens, and video-enhanced, computer generated imaging 
as well as image and motion analysis. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure/function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, in- 
cluding descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression 
and correlation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be 
made at registration. A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive 
credit for Anthropology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380. 

382. Paleobiology. (5) Analysis of the fossil record, with emphasis on biological and 
evolutionary principles. Topics include fossilization, paleoecology, morphologic anal- 
ysis, biogeography, macroevolution, diversification and extinction, systematics, and 
the role of chance in evolution. Lab/discussion— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

385. Cellular Physiology. (5) In-depth examination of current topics in cell biology 
such as cellular signalling, the extracellular matrix, biogenesis of mitochondria and 
chloroplasts, control of cell division, protein sorting in the Golgi, protein transloca- 
tion across membranes, and molecular motors. Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

388. Bioenergetics. (4) Lecture/seminar course dealing with the energetic principles 
and thermodynamic relations of living systems. Attention will be paid to the ener- 
getics of cells and organisms, as well as ecosystems. P— Biology 112-114. 

391, 392. Research in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory investigation 
carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass/fail or for grade at 
discretion of the instructor. P— Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Research in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish to con- 
tinue research projects beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass/fail optional. Not to be count- 
ed toward major. P— Permission of instructor. 

395. Philosophy of Biology and Medicine. (4) A lecture/seminar course dealing with 
the rational structure of biologic and biomedic sciences with major emphasis on the 
reductionistic, organismic, and telenomic paradigms of modern biology and medi- 
cine. The structure of selected biologic and biomedic theories will be included. P— 
Biology 112-114. 



90 



396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues 
in biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current 
controversies in health care and medical practice. P— Biology 112-114. 

397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through 
intensive reading and discussions. P— Biology 112-114. 

Chemistry 

Willie L. Hinze, Chairman 

Professors Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Roger A. Hegstrom, 

Willie L. Hinze, Charles F. Jackets, 

Susan C. Jackels, Ronald E. Noftle 

Associate Professor Huw M. L. Davies 

Assistant Professors James C. Fishbein, N. Ganapathisubramanian, 

Bradley T. Jones, Dilip K. Kondepudi, Mark E. Welker 

Visiting Assistant Professor Philip S. Hammond 

The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees in chemistry 
and is on the list of departments certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 116, 221, 222, 
341, 342 or 344 and 361; Mathematics 111-112; and Physics 113, 114. 

The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 116, 221, 222, 
334, 341, 344, either 351 or 356/357, 361, 381, 382, 383, 391 or 392; Mathematics 111 
and 112 and either 113 or 301; and Physics 113 and 114. 

Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly recommended for the BS 
degree candidate. The number and selection of these courses depends on the profes- 
sional goals of the individual student. Examples of these courses are Mathematics 
302 and 304; Physics 161 and 164; and Biology 370 and 371. 

The department also offers a five-year BA/MS degree program. Students qualifying 
for the program may receive a tuition scholarship in the senior year. For informa- 
tion, consult the department chairman. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include 
at least one of the following courses: 323, 325, 326, 334, 341, 342 or 344, 351, 361, 
362. The department will not accept courses taken pass/fail to count toward the minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on 
a letter-grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter-grade basis 
the required physics and mathematics courses. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required 
of students who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contin- 
gent upon satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced 
courses must be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS 
degree with a major in chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemis- 
try courses numbered 200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must have a minimum GPA in chemistry 



91 



courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors candidate 
must satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper describing 
the project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For additional 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 
For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 344 Chemistry 334 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 Chemistry 383 Chemistry 361 

Chemistry 391 or 392 Chemistry 

Mathematics or 300-Level 

Science Elective 

For the BA major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 361 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 

For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a mem- 
ber of the faculty in chemistry. 

Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage 
and for certain non-returnable items as determined by the department. 

111. College Chemistry. (5) Fundamental chemical principles. Laboratory covers 
experimental aspects of basic concepts. Lab— three hours. 

116. Equilibrium and Analysis. (5) Fundamental principles of equilibrium as applied 
to inorganic and generalized acid-base systems. Laboratory covers aspects of quan- 
titative and inorganic qualitative analysis. Lab— three hours. P— Chemistry 111. 

221, 222. Organic Chemistry. (5,5) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 116. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P— Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

323. Organic Analysis. (4) The systematic identification of organic compounds. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 222. 

325, 326. Organic Synthesis. (4,4) Reagents for and design of synthetic routes to or- 
ganic molecules. P— Chemistry 222. 

334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods 
of chemical analysis. Lab— four hours. C— Chemistry 341. 

341. Physical Chemistry I. (5) Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics and 
electrochemistry, phenomenological kinetics, and introductory computational 
methods. Lab— four hours. P— Chemistry 116, Math 111, Physics 113-114. C— Math 
112. 

342. Physical Chemistry II A. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical ther- 
modynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab— four hours. P— 
Chemistry 341, Math 111-112, Physics 113-114. 



92 



344. Physical Chemistry IIB. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical ther- 
modynamics, and introductory computatational methods. Lab— four hours. P— 
Chemistry 341, Math 111-112 and 301 (or 113), Physics 113-114. 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with partic- 
ular emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, and 
drug action. P— Chemistry 222. 

356, 357. Chemical Spectroscopy. (2,2) Fundamental aspects of the theory and appli- 
cation of chemical spectroscopy, as found in the areas of analytical, inorganic, or- 
ganic, and physical chemistry. Emphasis will vary. Seven week courses. P— Chemistry 
342 or 344, 361, or permission of instructor. 

361. Inorganic Chemistry. (5) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 342 or 344. 

362. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Continuation of principles of inorganic chemistry with 
practical applications to inorganic systems. P— Chemistry 361. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P— Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab— eight hours. 

Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chairman 

Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Assistant Professors Mary L. B. Pendergraft, James T. Powell 

Visiting Assistant Professor James G. DeVoto 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and clas- 
sical studies. Minors are offered in Greek, Latin, and classical studies. 

A major in Greek requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two of these credits 
must be in the Greek language. Classics 270 is also a requirement. 

A minor in Greek requires twenty-five credits: Greek 111-112, 153, 211, and either 
212 or 231; and Classics 270. 

A major in Latin requires thirty-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a require- 
ment, and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits 
of course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits 
in the department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both 
Latin and Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 200-level 



93 



in either Greek or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancient Art), Classics 265 (Greek 
Literature), Classics 272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 
271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 
245 (Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); History 
215, 216 (The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy), 230 
(Plato), 231 (Aristotle); Politics 271 (Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 274 
(Noble Greeks and Romans); Religion 311 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient 
Israel and Her Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211. Other 
courses may be allowed with the permission of the department. 

A minor in classical studies requires five courses in addition to Latin or Greek 153: 
Classics 265, 272, and either 270 or 271; and two additional courses (8 credits) in Greek, 
Latin, Classics, or other courses allowed by the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as 
the requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an ap- 
propriate part of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in 
high school. A student wishing to secure this certification should confer with the 
chairman of the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," 
a student must complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral 
examination. For honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward 
the major must be seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one semi- 
nar course in Latin or Greek is required. For additional information, members of the 
departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and selected readings. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221. Greek Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and 
interests. 

231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (3) Euripides' Medea. This course includes a study of the origin 
and history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading of selected tragedies in transla- 
tion. Seminar. 

242. Greek Comedy. (3) Aristophanes' Clouds. This course includes a study of the 
origin and history of Greek comedy, with collateral reading of selected comedies in 
translation. Seminar. 



94 



291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material 
of Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 
or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with 
an introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, 
with attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 

221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero 
and Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with 
a study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, 
with study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention 
to the origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and in- 
terests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction 
to prose stylistics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems 
of Latin pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs 
and interests of selected students. 

Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors 
of their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 



95 



281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

151. Ethics in Greece and Rome. (2) Reading and discussion of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Cicero's On Moral Duties, with attention to our own ethical dilemmas. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabu- 
laries (e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is 
not required. 

251. Classical Mythology. (4) A study of the most important myths of the Greeks 
and Romans. Many of the myths are studied in their literary context. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek 
and Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their 
contribution to society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. 
A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

253. Greek Epic Poetry. (4) Oral epic poetry, with primary emphasis on the Iliad and 
the Odyssey of Homer and the later development of the genre. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

254. Roman Epic Poetry. (4) A study of the Latin treatment and development of the 
literary form, with emphasis on Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan. A knowledge 
of the Latin language is not required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and 
its influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euri- 
pides. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature 
in English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge 
of the Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject 
of Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 



96 



272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

279. Studies in Roman Biography. (2,3, or 4) A study in depth of a key figure of Ro- 
man history using the evidence of history, literature, numismatics, and epigraphy 
as well as art and archeology when appropriate. A knowledge of the Latin language 
is not required. 

280. Topics in Greek History. (4) The course will examine three central events in Greek 
history: the Persian War (490-479 B.C.), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), and 
the career of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), through close study of the works 
of Herodotus and Thucydides and of the Alexander tradition. Particular attention 
will be devoted to literary form and historiographical method. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

288. Individual Study. (2,3 or 4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Economics 

J. Daniel Hammond, Chairman 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors David G. Brown, Donald E. Frey, 

John C. Moorhouse, J. Van Wagstaff 

Associate Professors Claire Holton Hammond, J. Daniel Hammond 

Adjunct Associate Professor Gary R. Albrecht 

Assistant Professors Allin Cottrell, Michael S. Lawlor, Perry L. Patterson 

Visiting Assistant Professor Serguei Miassoedov 

Instructors Paul F. Huck, Marios Karayannis, Glenn Michael Lail 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective 
participation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills 
in solving economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative eco- 
nomic systems, and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for gradu- 
ate study or positions in industry and government. 

In order to major in economics, a student must have earned a minimum of a C 
in Economics 150, and have taken and passed Mathematics 109 and either Mathematics 
108 or 111. The major requires a minimum of thirty-six credits in economics, including 
Economics 150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. The remaining economics courses are selected 
by the student and his or her adviser. A minimum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in economics is required for graduation. 

Economics majors are encouraged to take complementary courses in mathematics, 
the humanities, or other social sciences to sharpen their analytical skills and acquire 
a broader understanding of important issues. The faculty adviser will assist each stu- 
dent in determining the particular combination of courses that satisfies his or her 
needs. 



97 



Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of Eco- 
nomics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 

The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the develop- 
ment of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major consists of 
the following course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; Mathematics 
111, 112, 113, 121, 251; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the 
program advisers. Recommended courses are Economics 206, 212, 223, 231, 232, 235, 
251, 252, and Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. Students elect- 
ing the joint major must receive permission from both the Department of Economics 
and the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. A minimum grade 
average of C in all courses attempted for the mathematical economics joint major 
is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors pro- 
gram in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathe- 
matical Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 or 
Mathematics 381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the 
program advisers for additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior* Senior 

Lower Division Economics 150 Economics 205, 206 Four electives 

requirements Mathematics 108 Economics 207, 208 in economics 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 

*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 

For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Mathematics 111, 112 Economics 150 Economics 205, 207 Economics 218 

Lower Division Mathematics 113, Economics 208, 215 Three electives in 

requirements 121 Mathematics 251 economics and/or 

mathematics 

150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic princi- 
ples. Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analyt- 
ic techniques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore 
or upperclass standing. 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply anal- 
ysis, neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market struc- 
tures. P— Economics 150. 



98 



206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing 
behavior of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic 
dynamics. Theory employed in assessment of policy issues. P— Economics 205. 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts 
of national income, circular flow, income determination, IS-LM analysis, and Phil- 
lips curves. Emphasizes contributions of Keynes and the Keynesian tradition, including 
some attention to primary literature. P— Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Considers extensions of Keynesian the- 
ory, such as the post-Keynesisians, and alternatives to Keynesian theory, such as 
monetarism, traditional classical, and new classical theories. More advanced tools 
of macroeconomic analysis may be introduced, for instance large forecasting models 
or dynamics. P— Economics 207. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern econo- 
metric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P— Economics 
150. C-Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative 
methods, with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P— Economics 
205, 207 and Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used 
to develop basic tools of economic analysis. P— Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 
111, 112. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P— 
Economics 150. C— Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P— 
Economics 207 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P— Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, crimi- 
nal behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P — Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition forma- 
tion, the optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P— 
Economics 205. 

231. Economics of Industry. (4) Analysis of the link between market structure and 
market performance in U.S. industries from theoretical and empirical viewpoints. 
Examines the efficiency of different firm practices including mergers and cartels. Case 
studies include automobiles, steel, agriculture, computers, sports, and telecommuni- 
cations. P— Economics 150. C— Economics 205. 



99 



232. Business and Government. (2,4) Analysis of the logic and effectiveness of various 
regulatory instruments used by government to affect the structure and performance 
of industry. Principal topics include economic regulation of natural monopoly, an- 
titrust policy, and deregulation in transportation and other industries. P— Economics 
150. C— Economics 205. 

235. Labor Theory. (4) A survey of neoclassical labor economics. Includes recent 
developments in the macroeconomics of the labor market, including expectations and 
wage inflation and the wage-productivity-price relationship. P— Economics 205, 207. 

236. Economics of Human Resources. (4) Survey of diverse theories outside the neo- 
classical tradition dealing with wages and employment, education, and labor 
relations. Methods of program and policy evaluation are introduced where applica- 
ble. P— Economics 150. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Application of economic theory to suburbanization, land 
values, urban decay and redevelopment, zoning, location decisions of firms and house- 
holds, and metropolitan fiscal problems. P— Economics 205. 

247. Regional Economics. (4) Study of the economic structure of subnational and in- 
ternational regions, and of their interactions. Includes analysis of trends and of the 
economic welfare implications of spatial policies. P— Economics 205. 

248. Resource Economics. (4) The economic theory of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P— Economics 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade patterns 
and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P— Economics 
205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency mar- 
kets, balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P— 
Economics 205, 207. 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of 
several non-capitalist economies, with special reference to the Soviet Union, the 
People's Republic of China, and Eastern Europe. P— Economics 150. 

254. Capitalism and Planning. (2,4) The role of strategies of comprehensive govern- 
ment intervention in the economies of the West. Special attention to planning mecha- 
nisms and industrial policies in Japan and Western Europe. Four-credit version devotes 
additional attention to features of the welfare state. P— Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. P— 
Economics 205. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy P— Economics 150. 



100 



262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments 
in economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P— Economics 
205, 207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence 
of three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P— Economics 
205, 207. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (2,4; 2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult 
the instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P— Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. 
P— Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting 
a research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research 
project. Required of candidates for departmental honors. P— Permission of 
department. 



Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chairman 
Professors Patricia M. Cunningham, Thomas M. Elmore, 
Samuel T. Gladding, John H. Litcher, Joseph O. Milner, 

Linda N. Nielsen, J. Don Reeves 

Associate Professors Robert H. Evans, Leonard P. Roberge 

Visiting Assistant Professor Mary Lynn Redmond 

Lecturers G. Dianne Mitchell, Marianne A. Schubert, Loraine M. Stewart 

Instructor Patricia H. Reavis 

Wake Forest University believes that the teaching profession is important to socie- 
ty and that its welfare is significantly affected by the quality of educational leader- 
ship. One of the important objectives of the University has been and continues to 
be the preparation of teachers and other professional school personnel. The Univer- 
sity's commitment to quality in teacher education is demonstrated by selective ad- 
mission to the program, a wide range of professional courses, and closely supervised 
internships appropriate to the professional development of students. 

Prospective elementary, science, and social studies teachers earn certification in 
those broad areas and majors in education. Prospective secondary teachers earn 
a professional minor in education and major in other departments. In addition to 
the professional program, the department provides elective courses open to all 
students. 



101 



Teacher Certification. The North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction 
issues the Professional Class A Teacher's Certificate to graduates who have com- 
pleted an approved program, including the specified courses in their teaching fields 
and the prescribed courses in education, who have demonstrated specific competen- 
cies, and who receive recommendations from the designated officials in their teaching 
areas and from the chairman of the department or deputy. 

Students who have graduated from an institution of higher education but have 
not completed an approved certification program may seek admission to the depart- 
ment in order to complete the Class A Certificate. 

Admission Requirements. Admission to the teacher education program normally oc- 
curs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official application 
with the department's certification officer, being interviewed, and being officially 
approved by the department. In addition, the North Carolina State Department of 
Public Instruction requires teacher education program applicants to successfully com- 
plete the General Knowledge and Communication Skills Sections of the National 
Teachers' Examination before being formally admitted. All candidates for admission 
must have a 2.5 GPA at the time of formal admission. 

Program Area Goals. The goals and objectives for each certification area are avail- 
able in the department's certification office. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candi- 
dates to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact 
sequence of professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular 
program and is determined by the adviser in conference with the candidate. For 
those seeking secondary certification, the majority of the professional work is taken 
during one semester of the senior year. Candidates for the elementary certificate 
may begin course work required for certification as early as the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) senior, 
graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of two field experience 
courses and the foundations of education course; (3) formal admission to the teacher 
certification program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials 
on the basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and 
the public school system. One semester of the senior year is reserved for the stu- 
dent teaching experience and the block of courses preparatory to that experience 
in the schools. Students may not take other courses during this semester without 
the approval of the department chairman. 

Exit Requirements. Students must maintain a 2.5 GPA while enrolled in the teacher 
education program, and complete the program with a minimum GPA of 2.5. The 
North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction requires candidates for profes- 
sional certification to successfully complete the Professional Knowledge Section and 
the area exam of the NTE. 



102 



Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English— Thirty-six credits, including four credits from courses numbered 160-175; 
287; sixteen credits from courses numbered 300-399, 287, 323, 390. 
French— Certification in K-12 in French: —Thirty-six credits, including French 216, 217, 
219, 221, 223, 224, or their equivalents; at least eight credits in French literature be- 
yond 217. 

Spanish— Certification in K-12 in Spanish:— Thirty-six credits, including Spanish 217, 
218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, or their equivalents; at least eight credits from 230, 231, 
232, 233; at least four additional credits in literature. 

German— Certification in K-12 in German: —Thirty-seven credits, including German 
153, 215, 216; at least twelve credits from German 217, 218, 219, 220, 221; at least 
twelve credits in German literature beyond 215 and 216. 
Latin— The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 
Mathematics— Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 331; four 
credits from 311, 317, or 357; at least two additional 300-level courses. If the student 
does not elect 357, it is recommended that he/she take 109. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188; 
Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 

Science— Certification in the individual fields of science: biology (forty-one credits), 
chemistry (thirty-five credits), or physics (thirty-seven credits). Certification in com- 
prehensive science: ten credits each in biology, chemistry, and physics (all credits 
must be from the same courses required for majors in those fields); eight credits 
in mathematics (Math 111, 112); additional work in the area of concentration: biolo- 
gy (ten credits), chemistry (ten credits), or physics (ten credits). All credits must 
be from the same courses required for majors in those fields.) 
Social Studies— Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course 
work in United States, European, and Third World history; sixteen credits with one 
course in economics, geography, politics, and anthropology or sociology. 

Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202, 
203, 311, 314, 354, 364, and 383. (Education 201, 202, 203 are replaced by 361, 362, 
363 respectively for students with graduate or unclassified standing.) In addition 
to these requirements, students seeking K-12 certification in foreign languages will 
take Education 390 and 313. They will take either Education 250 or 364. 

Elementary Certificate 

A major in elementary education requires 48 credits in education including Edu- 
cation 201, 202, 203, 221, 222, 250, 271, 293, 294, 295, 296, 311, 313, and 383 and an 
academic concentration in English, mathematics, science, or social studies. Addi- 
tional requirements for an Elementary Education Teaching Certificate include eight 
credits in language arts; eight credits in social studies; eight credits in science; four 
credits in mathematics; four credits in music or art; and six credits in health and 
sport science (including HSS 223). 



103 



Education Minor 

A minor in professional education includes Education 201, 202, 203, 311, 314, 354, 
364, 383. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. 

203. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P— Education 
202. 

221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature ap- 
propriate for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in 
reading. P— Permission of instructor. 

222. The Arts in the Elementary Grades. (2) The development of skills in music, 
movement, and fine arts, appropriate to the elementary grades. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

231. Adolescent Literature. (4) A study of recent fiction centering on the lives of 
adolescents. Attention is given to interpretation of literature ranging from the reader 
response approach to critical pluralism. 

250. Student Teaching: Elementary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
K-6. Pass/fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems 
related to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background 
references for reading are suggested prior to the tour. Offered in the summer. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major com- 
ponents of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years, spring semester of even years. 
P-Music 174, 182. 



104 



281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each 
topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts 
tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. Politics and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representa- 
tive topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, 
including practical experience with ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. 
P— Music 174 or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an exami- 
nation of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Course may 
be repeated. P— Permission of instructor. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techniques. 
Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and instrumen- 
tal repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. Spring. P— Music 101 or 
102 or permission of instructor. 

293. Elementary School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles 
of curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of audio- 
visual materials and equipment. P— Permission of instructor. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary 
grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary 
grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science and Mathematics. (4) A survey 
of the basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching science and mathematics 
in the intermediate grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary 
trends and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. 
The course is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate 
their schools as informed citizens and decision-makers. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcom- 
puters for educators and other users, emphasizing familiarity with computers, use 
and evaluation of software, and elementary programming skills. Experience with 
audiovisual materials and techniques is included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P— Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 



105 



304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary society and education, 
including goals and values, institutional culture, and the teaching/learning process. 

306. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Education. (4) A study of selected 
historical eras, influential thinkers, or crucial problems in education. Topics 
announced annually. 

311. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effec- 
tive teaching/learning. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, 
and physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special con- 
cern for the educational implications of this process. 

314. The School and Teaching. (4) Organization of the school system; bases of edu- 
cation; the curriculum; major problems of education and teaching; the role of the 
teacher; psychological aspects of teaching. P— Education 201 and permission of 
instructor. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, 
theory, procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling 
approaches in guidance and personnel work in education, business, and commu- 
nity service agencies. 

351. Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology 
as related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize 
researchers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents between 
the ages of thirteen and nineteen. 

354. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching 
the various subjects. P— Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

361. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

362. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar, Pass/fail only. 

363. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only P— Education 
362. 

364. Field Experience Three: Secondary Student Teaching. (6) Supervised teaching 
experience in grades 6-12. Pass/fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

383. Reading, Writing, and Computers in the Content Areas. (3) An introduction 
to using reading, writing, and computers to help students learn content-area infor- 
mation at all grade levels. Strategies for adjusting instruction and developing litera- 
cy for all students will be emphasized. 






106 



384. Creative Research Methodologies. (2) An investigation of source materials, printed 
and manuscript, and research methods which are applied to creative classroom ex- 
periences and the preparation of research papers in literature and social studies. 

385. Publishing in America and Professional Authorship. (2) A survey of the history 
of publishing and literary authorship in the United States emphasizing social con- 
texts and the impact of books on American institutions. 

387. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric with a 
special emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own 
writing process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice 
tutoring techniques in keeping with these theories. (Strongly recommended for those 
interested in working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive 
credit for both Education 387 and English 287.) 

390. Methods and Materials for Teaching Foreign Language. (4) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching foreign languages in the elementary 
and middle grades. Emphasis is placed on issues and problems involved in planning 
and implementing effective second language programs in grades K-6. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to 
teachers of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativi- 
ty in children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior perfor- 
mance. Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and 
problems of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality 
characteristics and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social im- 
plications of studying giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in 
the Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition 
presented by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation 
and instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the class- 
room experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special 
school setting. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to pro- 
grams in education and training in business/industrial settings. 



107 



English 

Barry G. Maine, Chairman 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Andrew V. Ettin, 

Doyle R. Fosso, James S. Hans, W. Dillon Johnston, Robert W. Lovett, 

William M. Moss, Robert N. Shorter, Edwin Graves Wilson 

Visiting Professor Declan Kiberd 

Associate Professors Mary K. DeShazer, Barry G. Maine, 

Dolly A. McPherson, Gillian R. Overing 

Assistant Professors Anne Boyle, Bashir El-Beshti, Philip Kuberski, 

Gale Sigal, Claudia N. Thomas 

Visiting Assistant Professors David Cody, Andrea Rowland, 

William Rowland, Michael Selmon, Mark S. Sexton 

Professor of Journalism Bynum G. Shaw 

Lecturers Linda C. Brinson, Patricia A. Johansson 

Poet-in-Residence Robert A. Hedin 

Instructors Ellen Kovner, Mark Lytal, Thomas McGohey, 

Christopher Metress, Lynette Rothe, Henry Russell 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of 
which must be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. 
These courses must include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature 
before 1800, one course in American literature, and, early in the major, one seminar. 
Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet these requirements and 
to include work in the major literary genres. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus five 
advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an adviser 
in the English department who will plan a program of study with the student. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in 
British and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are offered 
each semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by the depart- 
ment as related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they may be taken 
as electives regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second 
semester of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To gradu- 
ate with "Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point average 
of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the requirements for 
English 388 during their senior year. Interested students may consult departmental 
faculty members for further information. 

Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the 
basic principles of composition. 

105. English Fundamentals. (2) Training in the fundamentals of written English. Ad- 
mission by placement only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 



108 



*110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays 
based upon readings. 

*112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing based 
on the reading of literature. P— Permission of department. 

160. Survey of Major British Writers. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in Major British Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing differ- 
ent periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. 
P— Permission of department. 

170. Survey of Major American Writers. (4) Nine to eleven writers representing differ- 
ent periods and genres. 

175. Studies in Major American Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing differ- 
ent periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. 
P— Permission of department. 

180. Traditions of Humanity: The Liberal Arts. (2) A study of major concepts of 
liberal education in the Western world. 

210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P— Satisfaction of basic composi- 
tion requirement. 

225. Reading Short Fiction. (2) Selected readings from the genre of short fiction 
designed to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

226. Reading the Novel. (2) Selected readings from the genre of the novel designed 
to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

227. Reading Poetry. (2) Selected readings from the genre of poetry designed to in- 
crease students' appreciation and pleasure. 

228. Reading Drama. (2) Selected readings from the genre of drama designed to 
increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and news-writing; study of news and news values, with some attention 
to representative newspapers. 



"Either 110 or 112 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is waived. 
Either course fulfills the basic requirement. 



109 



272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, 
and make-up; practice on video display terminal. P— English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of newspaper 
stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in journal- 
ism. P— English 270. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism 
and its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with con- 
centration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experience 
in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By pre arrangement. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 

286. Short Story Workshop. (2) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

287. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric, with a 
special emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own 
writing process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice 
tutoring techniques in keeping with these theories. Strongly recommended for those 
interested in working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive 
credit for both Education 387 and English 287. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Verse Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and dis- 
cussing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. In- 
tensive practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short 
essays. Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American 
or British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. 
May be repeated. 



110 



304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English 
syntax, morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention 
to vocabulary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English litera- 
ture, including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mythology. 
Readings from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend 
in France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir 
Thomas Malory. 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) The origin and development of poetic genres and lyric forms 
of Middle English. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with some 
attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and philosophical 
background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive 
of Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean trage- 
dies, comedies, and tragicomedies. 

323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's develop- 
ment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and 
The Faerie Queene. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on 

Paradise Lost. 

328. Seventeenth-Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw; prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of reli- 
gious, political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and prose, 
exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Boswell. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant literary 
trends. 

335. Eighteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richardson, 
Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 
to 1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, 
Goldsmith, and Sheridan. 

337. Studies in Eighteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Selected topics in eighteenth- 
century literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 



Ill 



340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. 
Feminist critical approaches to literature. 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of genres, 
major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, autobi- 
ography, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry of Blake, 
Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries in the 
Irish Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools 
of thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, 
Forster, Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual 
backgrounds. 

367. Twentieth-Century Poetry. (4) Readings of major poets from 1900 to 1965 in rela- 
tion to the development of Modernism. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth-century 
naturalism and symbolism through expressionism and absurdism, including represen- 
tative plays by Shaw, O'Neill, Williams, and Pinter. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American litera- 
ture and thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal 
periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

376. American Poetry from 1855 to 1900. (4) Readings from at least two of the following 
poets: Whitman, Dickinson, Melville. 

377. American Jewish Literature (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or ex- 
periences by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and generational 
conflicts, responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on American 



112 



Jews, and the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non-Jewish 
artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of select- 
ed fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to 1965. (4) To include such writers as Stein, 
Lewis, Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Wolfe, Wright, 
Ellison, Agee, Flannery O'Connor, and Pynchon. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided 
by the department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by 
a qualified student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

389. The Use of the Library in Literary Research. (2) Attention to materials, methods, 
and bibliography for the study of literature. 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques 
of modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ash- 
bery, Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 



German and Russian 

Larry E. West, Chairman 

Professors Wilmer D. Sanders, Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor William S. Hamilton 

Assistant Professors Michael Gilbert, Kurt C. Shaw 

Lecturer Christa G. Carollo 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 113. These 
must include German 217 and should include 281 and 285. A minor in German 
requires five courses beyond German 153, one of which must be German 217. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
German," they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive 



113 



examination. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should 
be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin, the W.D. Sanders Scholarship, and programs of study at Freiburg 
and Vienna administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors 
are strongly encouraged to live at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4,4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab— one hour. 

113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material 
of German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inade- 
quate or who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to 
students who have had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab— one hour. P— German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab— one hour. P— Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four differ- 
ent regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant 
exposure to the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. Students 
attend daily language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required 
to keep a journal in German. Pass/fail. Offered in summer. P— German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to acquaint 
students with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and reports. P— 
German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. 
P— German 153 or equivalent. 

218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German stressing corrections of struc- 
ture, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. P— 
German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced 
level, stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German- 
speaking countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P— German 
218 or permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization I. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from pre- 
historic times to 1918. Conducted in German. P— German 153 or equivalent. 

221. German Civilization II. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from the 
Weimar Republic to the present, with particular emphasis on contemporary Germany. 
Conducted in German. P— 153 or equivalent. 



114 



231. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-33, 
in historical context. Cross-listed as History 318. 

240. Modern Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of 
selected texts in English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary 
according to instructor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. Old High German and Middle High German Literature. (4) The study of major 
writers and works from these two areas; emphasizes major writings of the chivalric 
period. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

250. Renaissance, Reformation, and Baroque German Literature. (4) A study of major 
writers and works from the post-chivalric period to approximately 1700. P— German 
215, 216, or equivalent. 

263. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century I. (4) Poetry, prose, drama, and 
critical works from approximately 1795 to 1848. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

264. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century II. (4) Readings from the beginnings 
of Poetic Realism to the advent of Naturalism. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. (1-4) Studies in literature not ordinarily read in other courses. 
P— German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 

281. Seminar: Twentieth Century German Literature. (4) Intensive study of represen- 
tative works of major German writers, including literature of the post-war era. P— 
German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. Seminar in Goethe. (4) Faust, Part I and other major dramas by Goethe and 
Schiller. Parallel readings in other works by these authors. P— German 215, 216, or 
equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 

Russian 

A major requires thirty-two credits beyond 153 and must include Russian 215, 216, 
221, and either 217 or 218. A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, 
four of which must be earned in Russian 221 . Students of Russian are invited to apply 
for study at Moscow State University and for programs of study in Moscow and Kiev 
administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are strongly 
encouraged to live at least one semester in the Russian House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation 
drill, and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Principles of Russian grammar are reviewed and ex- 
panded upon; reading of short prose pieces and materials from the Soviet press. Lab 
required. P— Russian 112 or equivalent. 



115 



215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nineteenth 
century. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twen- 
tieth century. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Twentieth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the advanced 
level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on contemporary 
Soviet materials. 

230. The Structure of Russian. (4) The linguistic tools of phonetics, phonemics, and 
morphophonemics are explained and applied to modern Russian. Emphasis is given 
to the study of roots and word formation. P— Permission of instructor required. 

232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) The evolution of Russian from Common 
Slavic to the modern language; theory of linguistic reconstruction and the Indo- 
European family; readings from selected Old East Slavic texts. P— Russian 221 and 
permission of instructor. 

240. Seminar in Translation. (4) Advanced work in English-to-Russian and Russian- 
to-English translation. P— Russian 221 and permission of instructor. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in the Soviet Union. (2) An investigation 
designed by the student is carried out in the USSR during spring break. An evalua- 
tive paper follows the class trip. Credit given for the minor when the project is done 
in Russian. P— Russian 111 and permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 

250. Russian Culture and Civilization. (4) Survey of Russian contributions to art, 
architecture, music, and religious thought from Russia's beginnings to the present. 
Taught in Russian. P— Russian 215 or 216. 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. 
P— Russian 215 or higher. 



Health and Sport Science 

William L. Hortinger, Chairman 

Professors William L. Hottinger, W. Jack Rejeski, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Michael J. Berry, Leo Ellison, Stephen P. Messier 

Assistant Professor Barbee C. Myers 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Bobbie Goodnough, Rebecca Myers, David Stroupe 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Sport Science is to organize, 
administer, and supervise (1) a health and sport science curriculum; (2) a required/ 



116 



elective health and sport science program consisting of conditioning activities, dance, and 
lifetime sport activities; and (3) an intramural sports program. 

Health and Sport Science Requirement 

All entering students are required to complete two courses in health and sport 
science: Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness (111), and one additional course select- 
ed from the 100-series of health and sport science courses, or HSS 205, 206, 207. The 
requirement must be completed before elective courses are taken. It is recommend- 
ed that the requirement be completed by the end of the student's first year; it must 
be completed by the end of the second year. 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Sport Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

111. Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness 

112. Sports Proficiency 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity (May be repeated one time for credit) 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning 

116. Weight Training 

117. Cycling 

119. Aerobic Dancing 

120. Beginning Dance Technique 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique (P— Health and Sport Science 120 or 
permission of instructor) 

122. Advanced Dance Technique (P— Health and Sport Science 121 or 
permission of instructor) 

123. Dance Composition (P— Health and Sport Science 121) 

124. Social Dance 

125. Folk and Social Dance 

126. Jazz Dance 

127. Classical Ballet (May be repeated for a maximum of three credits) 
"128. Dance Theatre (P— Permission of instructor) 

130. Beginning Tumbling/Free Exercise 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/ Advanced Swimming 

146. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P— Current emergency water safety or lifeguard training 
certification) 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 

152. Advanced Tennis (P— Health and Sport Science 151 or equivalent) 
154. Beginning/Intermediate Badminton 

156. Beginning Racquetball 

157. Intermediate Racquetball 
160. Beginning Golf 



117 



161. Intermediate Golf 

163. Bowling 

170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding (P/F grade only) 

180. Intermediate/Advanced Horseback Riding (P/F grade only) 

181. Snow Skiing (P/F grade only) 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183. Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 

190. Karate 

191. Yoga 



*One course taken two semesters for one credit. May be repeated for a maximum of three credits. 

Courses for the Major and Minor 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and sport 
science. A major requires forty-four credits and must include Health and Sport Science 
209, 212, 230, 350, 351, 352, 353, 355, 360, and 370. A maximum of five 100-level 
activity courses can be counted toward the major, excluding the University require- 
ment. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 is required for graduation in courses 
that comprise a major in the department. 

A minor in health and sport science requires twenty-four credits. Twelve credits 
must be selected from Health and Sport Science 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 360, and 
370. The remaining twelve credits may be selected from these courses but may also 
include Health and Sport Science 209, 212, 230, 241, and 363. To minor, a student 
must have department approval. 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Health and Sport 
Science 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, and 201; Music 101; Speech Communica- 
tion and Theatre Arts 121; and History of Dance 104. The remaining credits may 
be selected from Health and Sport Science 191, 370; Music 161, 165p, 165r, 165v, 
166r, 168v, 190, 261; and Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 122, 221, 317, 
and 319. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program. Upon successfully meeting specifically outlined requirements, 
they are recommended for graduation with "Honors in Health and Sport Science." 
Consult an adviser in the health and sport science department for more information. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and sport science should consult the 
chairman of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

201. Senior Dance Project. (2) A course involving the creative process of developing 
a dance. 

202. History of American Dance. (4) A survey of American dance from the 1600 's 
to the present with emphasis on scope, style, and function. 



118 



205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in 
skin and scuba diving that offers international certification by the Professional 
Association of Diving Instructors (PADI). 

206. First Aid, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, and Lifeguard Training. (2) This 
course is designed to provide students with skills in first aid, cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation and lifeguard training that will qualify them to serve as nonsurf 
lifeguards. 

207. Water Safety and Lifeguard Instructor. (2) This course is designed to certify 
students as water safety and lifeguard instructors. P— 206 or permission of instructor. 

208. Current Topics in Sports Psychology. (2) A survey of the field with an empha- 
sis on current topics. Students may not receive credit for both 208 and 212. 

209. Introduction to Health and Sport Science. (2) A course which traces the histo- 
ry of exercise and sport science. Students also examine the relevance of health and 
sport science in modern society. 

212. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents 
of exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to well- 
ness, stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the psychodynam- 
ics of rehabilitative medicine. P— Psychology 151 or permission of instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

230. First Aid and CPR. (2) A course in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
Red Cross Advanced First Aid and Community CPR certification offered. 

241. Growth, Development, and Physical Activity. (2) An examination of the effect 
of physical activity on physical, intellectual, and social/psychological development. 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods 
of solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career 
goals. (P/F grade only, open only to majors and minors.) P— Permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles 
and concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis 
on the muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P— Biology 112 
or permission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which presents 
the principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs 
and nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity 
patterns on energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine in- 
tervention in obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of 
diet prescription, and behavior modification. P— Health and Sport Science 353 or 
permission of instructor. 



119 



352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture/laboratory course in which the structure 
and function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the 
dissection and study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular 
systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. 
The acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to 
exercise are examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutri- 
tion and performance, strength and endurance training, somatotype and body com- 
position, sex-related differences, and environmental influences. P— Health and Sport 
Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Laboratory Techniques in Exercise Science. (4) A laboratory course which 
demonstrates the concepts of the physiological response to exercise. Weekly experi- 
ments on a variety of topics give students hands-on experience with data collection 
methods. Experimental results are analyzed and presented in written lab reports. 
P— Health and Sport Science 353. 

355. Exercise Prescription. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which presents the scien- 
tific principles of safe and effective assessment and prescription of fitness programs. 
This course will prepare the student for the ACSM Health Fitness Instructor Certifi- 
cation. 

360. Evaluation and Measurement. (4) A course in applied univariate statistics and 
measurement techniques in exercise and sport science. Students are introduced to 
both the BMDP statistical software package and the use of microcomputers for data 
management. 

365. Development and Management of Health Promotion and Fitness Programs. 

(4) This course surveys the principles involved in the development and manage- 
ment of various health promotion and fitness programs. Special attention is given 
to facility planning, staffing, marketing, budgeting, and client motivation. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles 
which influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. P— 
Health and Sport Science 352 or permission of instructor. 

375. Advanced Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which provides an in- 
depth examination of the physiological mechanisms responsible for both the acute 
and chronic changes which occur with exercise. Included are cellular changes in 
response to exercise, the ventilatory response to exercise and metabolic consequences 
of exercise. P— Health and Sport Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The 
student must consult the adviser before registering for this course. P— one of the 
following: 350, 352, 360, 365, 370. 



120 



Sports Medicine 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (3) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. 
P— Health and Sport Science 352. 



History 

J. Howell Smith, Chairman 

Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies James Ralph Scales 

Reynolds Professor of History Paul D. Escott 

Professors James P. Barefield, Richard C. Barnett, David W. Hadley, 

J. Edwin Hendricks, Thomas E. Mullen, Michael L. Sinclair, 

David L. Smiley, J. Howell Smith, Alan J. Williams, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professor Michael L. Hughes 

Assistant Professors Kevin M. Doak, William K. Meyers, Anthony S. Parent Jr., 

Yuri Slezkine, Sarah L. Watts 

Visiting Assistant Professor Gloria J. Fitzgibbon 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 
Adjunct Professor of History William T. Alderson 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
History 310 or History 288; seven to eight credits in European history; seven to eight 
credits chosen from among courses in Latin-American, Asian, or African history; 
and seven to eight credits in United States history. 

Majors may include within the required thirty-six credits up to eight credits of 
advanced placement or comparable work and up to four credits of any combination 
of independent study and directed reading other than the credits earned in History 
397. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. Courses that the student elects 
to take pass/fail do not meet the requirements for the major or minor. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in 
history. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student 
must complete History 287, present an honors-quality research paper, successfully 
defend the paper in an oral examination, and earn an overall grade-point average 
of 3.0 with an average of 3.3 on work in history. For additional information, stu- 
dents should consult members of the department. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of 
one modern foreign language for the MA degree and two for the Ph.D. degree. 

101. The Rise of the West. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern his- 
tory to 1700. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 



121 



102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 
1700 to the present. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. (Credit 
cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

104. World Civilizations Since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the 
world in the modern and contemporary periods. (Credit cannot be received for both 
101 and 103, and 102 and 104.) 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women 
who have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

151, 152. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 
151: Before 1865; 152: After 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either 
of these courses for credit. 

153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to 
students who take either 151 or 152. 

160. Freud. (4) An investigation of Freud's basic ideas in the context of his time. 

162. History of Wake Forest University. (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest 
from its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include 
a visit to the town of Wake Forest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans 
in the spring. 

221. The Middle Ages. (4) A survey of European history, 400-1300, stressing social 
and cultural developments. 

224. The Reformation. (2) Europe in the age of the Reformation. 

2260. History of London. (4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history 
of London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum 
visits and lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and govern- 
ment in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles 
the Rash, 1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, including 
the role within Venetian life of music, theatre, the church, and civic ritual. Offered 
in Venice. 

2280. Georgian and Victorian Society and Culture. (4) Social and economic trans- 
formation of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with particular 
attention to the rise of professionalism and developments in the arts. Offered in London. 



122 



232. European Historical Novels. (2) The role of the historical past in selected works 
of fiction. 

2370. Churchill. (4) The life and times of Britain's World War II leader (1874-1965). 
Offered in London. 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: Seminar on problems of historical synthesis 
and interpretation; 288: Writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 

301. Seminar. The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the 
transition from ancient views of the world to the perspective of early modern science 
and philosophy, with focus on the works of Plato, Aristotle, Kepler, and Galileo. 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scien- 
tific and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, New- 
tonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

303. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

305. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search 
for extraterrestrial life. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper 
is required. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1973. (4,4) Changes in 
Europe's economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes 
how economic forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 
314: 1750-1973. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars 
that constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

318. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 
1919-1933, in historical context. German or history credit determined at registration. 

319: Germany to 1871. (4) Social, economic, and political forces leading to the crea- 
tion of a single German nation-state out of over 1,700 sovereign and semi-sovereign 
German states. 

320. Germany, 1871 to Present. (4) The Germans' search for stability and unity in 
a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by nationalism. 

321. France. (4) A history of France to the Revolution of 1789. 

322. France. (4) A history of France from 1789 to present. 

323. 324. England. (4,4) A political and social survey, with some attention to 
Continental movements. 323: To 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 






123 



325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

328. History of the English Common Law. (4) A study of the origins and develop- 
ment of the English common law and its legacy to modern legal processes and prin- 
ciples. 

331. Russia: Origins to 1917. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history 
of Russia. 

332. History of the Soviet Union. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history 
of the Soviet Union since 1917. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with 
some attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include 
the unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming 
of World War I. 

335, 336. Italy. (4,4) Cultural, social and political history of Italy. 335: medieval and 
Renaissance Italy; 336: Nineteenth and twentieth-century Italy. 

339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of India, 
its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, Forster, 
Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, accommoda- 
tion, and nostalgia. 

340. Afro-American History. (4) The role of Afro- Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, 
Americanization, and influence. 

342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) Major 
subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and Persians 
under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence of the 
modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1850, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345. 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to the history 
and civilization of South Asia. Emphasis on historical developments in the social, 
economic, and cultural life of the area. 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) A survey of Japanese history since the American 
occupation, with emphasis on social and cultural developments. Topics include 
occupation reforms, re-industrialization, the rise of the LDP, "high growth eco- 
nomics," and citizen protest movements. 

348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and 
urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the con- 
temporary world. 



124 



350. Global Economic History. (4) An overview of the growth and development of 
the world economy from precapitalist organizations to the present system of 
developed and under-developed states. 

351, 352. American Society and Thought. (4,4) A non-political topical survey of Ameri- 
can culture and lifestyles. Topics include religion, science, education, architecture, 
and immigration. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, 
allegiances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revo- 
lution, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 
1763-1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, 
Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 




The Scales Fine Arts Center contains studios, classrooms, practice rooms, and theaters. 



125 



357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the 
war and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress 
and problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided 
into halves for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from Versailles through World War II. (4) The transition 
of America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of 
the New Deal and World War II. 

360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation 
from World War II to the present. 

361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the 
United States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controver- 
sies involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet 
the new American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the roles and activities of women 
in America, with emphasis upon selected individuals. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and 
agencies and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through 
artifacts, restorations, and reconstructions. P— Permission of instructor. 

367. 368. North Carolina. (4,4) Selected phases of the development of North Caroli- 
na from the colonial period to the present. 367: To 1850; 368: Since 1850. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and 
activities of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the rela- 
tionship between war and society. 

372. Introduction to African History. (4) An introduction to African history from 
the perspective of the continent as a whole. The historical unity of the African conti- 
nent and its relation to other continents will be stressed. 

373. History of Mexico. (4) An examination of the history of Mexico from the colonial 
period to the present. 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) A study of the history of protest 
movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to 
mass working class and socialist organizations. 

375. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin American history since Indepen- 
dence, with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate chiefly 
on economics, politics, and race. 



126 



376. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious 
history of the African American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from 
World War II to the present. (Same as Religion 341.) 

377. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental 
policies. 

381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) Training in the techniques and skills of 
historical preservation. Emphasis will vary according to the specific site(s) involved. 
P— Permission of instructor. 

397. Historical Writing Tutorial. (2) Individual supervision of historical writing to 
improve a project initiated in History 288 or History 310. P— Permission of instruc- 
tor. (Does not count toward major or minor requirements.) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by 
a qualified student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not other- 
wise available. P— Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

Robert N. Shorter, Coordinator 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Kenan Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

121. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humani- 
ties and the social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, 
feminist critical theory, and the place of women in culture and society. 

Humanities courses 213-222 are designed to introduce students to works of literature 
which would not be included in their normal course of study. Each course includes 
a reading in translation of ten to twelve representative authors as follows: 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Dante, Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Di- 
vision I requirement. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Hoffmann, Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Chekhov. Satis- 
fies a Division I requirement. 



127 



216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, Calde- 
rdn, Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia- 
Lorca, Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I re- 
quirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tolstoy, 
Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabd. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama and 
fiction from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions in fiction, 
drama and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a Division 
I requirement. 

222. African and Caribbean Literature. (4) An examination of the negritude move- 
ment and the negro-African novel. Texts studied are by such authors as Aime' 
Ce'saire, Leopold Senghor, Ousmane Sembene, and Mariama Ba. Satisfies a 
Division I requirement. 

242. Research on Culture in the Soviet Union. (2) An investigation designed by the 
student is carried out in the USSR during spring break. An evaluative term paper 
follows the class trip. Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under 
Russian 242. Limited enrollment. P— Permission of instructor. 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and 
Biblical monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a 
reading of such authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, 
and of selections from the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with 
each topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal 
arts tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the 
class discussion. "Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" 
are representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, 
Nietzsche, and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejec- 
tion of the teachings of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and method- 
ological questions and research on current topics in women's studies. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1,2) 
Selected writings of David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and 



128 



Harriet Beecher Stowe. Pass/fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the 
student has completed Humanities 341.) 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) 

An examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A careful 
reading of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark Twain, 
and others. 

343. The Philosophy of Liberation in Literature. (4) The concept of freedom as found 
in the works of such writers as Frederick Douglass, Kobo Abe, Wole Soyinka, 
Germaine Greer, Paule Marshall, Franz Fanon, Garcia Lorca, and James Baldwin. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1) A condensed version of Humanities 

345. offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass/fail only. (Credit not given for 
Humanities 344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture 
on American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include 
an evaluation of American mores. 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classical, modern, 
and contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an explanation of the cultural 
setting in which they occurred. 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) The dark side of traditional soci- 
ety that sparked revolution and civil war; forces that led to dissent and student 
movements. 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) The literary background of the 
democracy movement and the Tiananmen Square incident. 

352. The Classical and Surreal Tradition. (4) A venture to define and differentiate 
classical and surreal modes of perception throughout history, their paradoxical rela- 
tionship to each other and to complementary styles, considered in philosophy, music, 
literature, and painting. 

353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) Critical analysis of fiction by female 
authors whose works concern women in Africa and its Caribbean diaspora. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals 
of love in selected works of art. 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of human- 
ism through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types 
to be considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Christian; 
modern naturalistic; and Confucian. 

359. Fathers and Daughters. (4) The ways in which fathers influence their daugh- 
ters' emotional, psychological, and intellectual development. Selected materials from 
psychology, mythology, film, and contemporary literature. 



129 



360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

361. Dante I. (2) A study of the Vita Nuova as apprenticeship to the Divina Comme- 
dia, and of the first half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, autobiography, 
and poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European present (the birth 
of modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and Dante's own afterlife 
in the West. 

362. Dante II. (2) A study of the second half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophe- 
cy, autobiography, and poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's Euro- 
pean present (the birth of modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), 
and Dante's own afterlife in the West. P— Humanities 361 or permission of instructor. 

381. Solzhenitsyn: Witness, Survivor, and Critic. (4) A critical analysis of the politi- 
cal and literary development of Solzhenitsyn as seen in his major novels, poems, 
and plays. 

382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar 
films with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by 
major directors such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) An exploration of theories of fascism, 
with an emphasis on Italy between 1919 and 1944 as understood through novels 
and films. 

384. Latin American Cinema. (4) Examination of major Latin American films as 
cinematographic art and as expressions of social and political issues. Directors include 
Luis Bunuel, Tomas Gutierrez Alea, and Ruy Guerra. 

385. Legends of Troy. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of translations and trans- 
formations of the Trojan legend from the Greeks through the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance to the present. Texts, studied in English translation, are by such authors 
as Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Racine, and Giraudoux. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue 
study begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 



Linguistics 

Courses in linguistics are attached to the program in Humanities for administra- 
tive purposes. 

150. Introduction to Linguistics. (4) The social phenomenon of language: how it 
originated and developed, how it is learned and used, its relationship to other kinds 
of behavior; types of language (oral, written, signed) and language families; analy- 
sis of linguistic data; social issues of language use. (Spring) 



130 



Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified un- 
dergraduates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, su- 
pervised by the Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member 
of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars 
and who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating 
in an honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior 
in this course and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 
in all college work may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and 
Sciences." Students who choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not 
also be candidates for "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particu- 
larly interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic 
disciplines. 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work 
of three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, 
Dostoevsky, Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based 
on primary and secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written 
reports and a term paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 
131, 132, concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, 
Galileo, Keynes, Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. 

Offered in alternate years. 

*233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of 
evolution and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as 
economics, politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

*235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, 
state, or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and 
values. 

*236. The Force of Impresssionism. (4) Impressionism and its impact on modern 
painting and literature, with attention to origins and theories of style. Painters to 
include Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Cezanne. Writers to include Baudelaire, 
Flaubert, Mallarme, James, Pound, Joyce, and Woolf. 



k One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



131 



*237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciencies and the humanities. 

*238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and 
as a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, music, 
and painting. 

*239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis 
on its twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other 
centuries and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the 
arts are explored. 

*240. Adventures in Self -Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of signifi- 
cant accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, 
cultural contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, 
Dante, Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

*241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various con- 
ceptions of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited 
to the cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may 
also include theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

*246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and 
society in relation to the environment. 

*247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; 
the uses to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern 
explanations of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and 
historical). 

*248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, 
art, history, theatre, and film. 

*249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals 
of love in selected works of art. 

*250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with 
ethical questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 



"One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



132 



*252. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scien- 
tific and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, 
Newtonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

*253. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P— At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science 
or permission of instructor. 

*254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

*256. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search 
for extraterrestrial life. 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the 
Committee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based 
on these readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on 
the topic, administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. 
Eligible students who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the 
Committee on Honors by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for 
departmental honors. 



"One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



Mathematics and Computer Science 

Richard D. Carmichael, Chairman 

Reynolds Professor Robert J. Plemmons 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Elmer K. Hayashi, 

Frederic T. Howard, Ellen E. Kirkman, James Kuzmanovich, 

J. Gaylord May, W. Graham May, Wesley E. Snyder, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors David J. John, Stan J. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Daniel Cafias, James L. Norris III, Todd C. Torgersen 

Lecturer Gene T. Lucas 

Instructors Eva M. Allen, Jule M. Connolly, Graham S. Gersdorff, 

Karen A. Henderson, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must include 
courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 357, and at least two 
additional 300-level courses of at least four credits each. Lower division students 
are urged to consult a member of the departmental faculty before enrolling in courses 
other than those satisfying Division II requirements. 



133 



A major in computer science requires thirty-six credits in computer science and 
three courses in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 173, 
271, 275, 277, and 279. The required courses in mathematics are 117 plus two 
additional courses of at least four credits each numbered 108 or higher. Students 
considering graduate work in computer science should consult a major adviser in 
the department for assistance in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses (sixteen credits) in computer 
science numbered higher than 171, Mathematics 117, and an additional four credits 
in mathematics other than Mathematics 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 113 or 121, and three 
other courses of at least four credits each numbered higher than Mathematics 108, 
two of which must be numbered above 200. No one of Mathematics 301, 302, 303, 
304 can count as a course for this minor, but any pair may be so counted. Credit 
is not allowed for both Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 302 or for both Mathematics 
303 and Mathematics 317. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the depart- 
ment is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students 
and faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, 
game theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the develop- 
ment of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has the 
following course requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; Economics 150, 
205, 207, 208, 215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of 
the program advisers. Recommended courses are Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 
353, 357, 358 and Economics 206, 212, 223, 231, 232, 235, 251, 252. Students selecting 
the joint major must receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics 
and Computer Science and the Department of Economics. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in mathematics, computer science, or the joint major. To be 
graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathematics," "Honors in Computer 
Science," or "Honors in Mathematical Economics," they must complete satisfac- 
torily a senior research paper. To graduate with "Honors in Mathematics" or "Honors 
in Computer Science," majors must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 
in the major and 3.0 in all college course work. For additional information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics 
and/or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 



134 



Computer Science* 

171. Introduction to Computer Programming. (2) Lecture and laboratory. A first 
course in computer programming. Does not count toward computer science major 
or minor. Not available on pass/fail basis. 

173. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A course in 
structured programming, problem solving, and coding in a high level programming 
language. P— Computer Science 171 or equivalent. 

175. File Processing Techniques with COBOL. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study 
of file access and organization techniques for processing direct and sequential files 
using the COBOL language. P— Computer Science 171 or Computer Science 173. 

271. Computer Software Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the 
ways information is stored and handled in a computer; an introduction to machine 
and assembly language. P— Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

272. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic computer 
architecture. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic units, and 
memory devices. P— Computer Science 271. 

275. Data Structures. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Data representation and manipu- 
lation. Includes the data types of list, string, tree, set, and graph. P— Computer 
Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties 
of programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run- 
time representations. P— Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

279. Algorithm Design. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Techniques for designing and 
analyzing algorithms. Topics include sorting and searching, graph algorithms, 
geometric algorithms, pattern matching, and data compression techniques. P— 
Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied 
in regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling 
computer languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. 
P— Computer Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction 
to large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data- 
base models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P— Computer 
Science 275. 



*Other courses in which computing is used or taught extensively are Mathematics 355, Physics 130, 
and Physics 330. 



135 



375. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for 
sequencing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P— Computer 
Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

377. Theory of Computation. (4) Basic theoretical principles of computer science. 
Topics include the relationship between automats and grammars, Church's thesis, 
unsolvability, and computational complexity. P— Computer Science 279. 

379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P— Computer 
Science 279. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

391, 392. Senior Research. (2,2) A two-semester directed course of study. By prear- 
rangement. 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essen- 
tials of algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student 
must have taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible 
for admission). Not to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral 
calculus with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed 
credit for both 108 and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should 
not take Mathematics 108. Lab— two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution 
functions, means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab— two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions 
of one variable; infinite series. Computer lab using BASIC. No student allowed credit 
for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariable Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P— 
Mathematics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete 
mathematics applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean al- 
gebra, propositional logic, functions, computability, proof techniques, graph the- 
ory, and elementary combinatorics. 

121. Linear Algebra. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and ma- 
trices, linear groups, and determinants. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 



136 



221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the 
study of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P— Mathematics 121. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems 
for first order equations. P— Mathematics 112. 

253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. 
Studies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P— 
Mathematics 111. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple 
integrals, Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted 
toward any major offered by the department. P— Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, spe- 
cial matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward 
any major offered by the department. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, 
Taylor and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major offered 
by the department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P— Mathematics 112. 

304. Partial Differential Equations. (2) The separation of variables technique for the 
solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations with the 
related study of special functions and Fourier series. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department. P— Mathematics 251. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, 
differentiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform 
convergence, power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions 
of n real variables, implicit and inverse function theorems. P— Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy's theorem and its conse- 
quences, power series, and residue calculus. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 
317. P— Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the 
study of additional properties of groups and fields and a thorough treatment of vector 
spaces. P— Mathematics 221. 

323, 324. Matrix Theory I, II. (4,4) Basic concepts and theorems concerning matrices 
and real number functions defined on preferred sets of matrices. P— Mathematics 121. 

331. Geometry. (4) An introduction to axiomatic geometry including a comparison 
of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, 
congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots, sums of squares, magic squares, 
applications to elementary mathematics, quadratic residues, arithmetic theory of 
continued fractions. 



137 



348. Combinatorial Analysis. (4) Enumeration techniques, including generating func- 
tions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, and Polya's 
theorem. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and de- 
terministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent systems 
in the social, behavioral, and management sciences. P— Mathematics 253. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming 
in a scientific/engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer tech- 
niques for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, in- 
tegration, systems of linear equations and least squares methods. P— Mathematics 
112, Mathematics 121 and Computer Science 171. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regression, 
correlation, and analysis of variance. C— Mathematics 113, or P— Permission of 
instructor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in 
regular courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 




138 



Military Science 

Lieutenant Colonel John P. Modica, Professor 
Assistant Professors: Captain David P. Bumgarner, Captain Thomas B. Dalton III, 

Captain Charles Hands, Captain Frank M. Williamson 

Instructors: Major Stephen J. Huebner, Sergeant Major Lincoln C. Mitchell Jr., 

Sergeant First Class Clifton Lowery 

Completion of Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) requirements and 
recommendation for appointment by the professor of military science may result in 
commissioning as a second lieutenant in the active or reserve forces components of 
the Army of the United States, as determined by the Secretary of the Army. The 
AROTC program is composed of the Basic Course and the Advanced Course. The 
Basic Course is composed of four core courses (121, 122, 123 and 124), sometimes 
with either 117 or 118 taken each semester as a co-requisite. No military obligation 
is incurred by enrollment in the Basic Course, except by Army ROTC Scholarship 
cadets, and then only when beginning their sophomore year. The Basic Course may 
be completed, partially or fully, by various alternative methods (i.e., through credit 
for specific types of Junior ROTC or other military training, as determined by the 
professor of military science, or through completion of a six-week summer Basic 
Camp). The Advanced Course is composed of four core courses (225, 226, 227 and 
228), with either 117 or 118 taken each semester as a co-requisite, and a six-week 
Advanced Camp usually attended during the summer between the junior and senior 
years. Army ROTC three-year scholarships are available to qualified applicants (both 
those already enrolled in the AROTC program and those not yet enrolled) through 
annual competition. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of 
survival; mountaineering techniques. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time-distance relationships, 
and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (0,0) Basic military skills instruction designed to tech- 
nically and tactically qualify the student for assumption of an officer leadership 
position at the small-unit level. Either 117 (Fall) or 118 (Spring) is required each 
semester for contracted AROTC cadets (including those conditionally contracted), ad- 
vance designee scholarship winners and non-contracted AROTC cadets taking their 
third and fourth military science courses. Pass/fail only. C— Any other military science 
course. P— Permission of the professor of military science, except when required as 
explained above. 

121. Introduction to Army ROTC and the US Army. (2) An introduction to the Army 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps and to the United States Army exploring roles, 
organization, customs and traditions. C— Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

122. War and the Military Profession. (2) An examination of the arguments for and 
against a moral basis for war, and a critical discussion of the military as a profession, 



139 



its ethical requirements and dilemmas. Concludes with an examination of the 
fundamentals contributing to the development of a personal leadership style. P— 
Military Science 121 or permission of the professor of military science. C— Military 
Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

123. Land Navigation and Terrain Analysis. (2) A study of the methods of land navi- 
gation and terrain analysis for military operations. P— Military Science 121 and 122 
or permission of the professor of military science. C— Military Science 117 or 118, 
as appropriate. 

124. Introduction to Tactics. (2) An introduction to planning, organizing and con- 
ducting military ground operations. Consideration of the principles of war and a com- 
parative study of Soviet military power. P— Military Science 121, 122, and 123, or 
permission of the professor of military science. C— Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

225. Military Operations. (2) An in-depth study of the principles of combined arms 
operations. P— Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined 
by the professor of military science). C— Military Science 117. 

226. Advanced Military Operations. (2) A continuation of Military Science 225 with 
an emphasis on the leadership aspect of combined arms operations. Specific prepa- 
ration for the AROTC Advanced Camp. P— Military Science 121 through 124 (or equiva- 
lent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 
225. C— Military Science 118. 

227. Leadership and Management in the US Army I. (2) The theory and practice 
of military leadership. Emphasis on the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the Manu- 
al for Courts-Martial, the Law of Land Warfare and the Army's personnel, training, 
and logistical management systems. P— Military Science 121 through 124 (or equiva- 
lent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 
225 and 226. C— Military Science 117. 

228. Leadership and Management in the US Army II. (2) A continuation of Military 
Science 227 with emphasis on the transition from cadet to officer. P— Military Science 
121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by the professor of military science) 
and Military Science 225 through 227. C— Military Science 118. 

229. American Military History. (4) The American military experience with empha- 
sis on the ideas and activities contributing to the development of the United States' 
unique military establishment. Particular emphasis on civilian control of the mili- 
tary. P— Permission of the professor of military science. Credit not allowed for this 
course if credit has been earned for History 369. 



140 



Music 

Susan Harden Borwick, Chairwoman 

Professor Susan Harden Borwick 

Associate Professors Stewart Carter, Louis Goldstein, 

David B. Levy, Dan Locklair 

Assistant Professors Peter Kairoff, Teresa Radomski 

Visiting Assistant Professor Pamela Howland 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles Martin Province 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Visiting Director of Choral Ensembles Robert Cowles 

Instructors Patricia Dixon, Lucille S. Harris, Kathryn Levy 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of 
thirty-six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 
181, 182, six credits; ten credits of applied music; and four credits of ensemble, taken 
in four semesters) plus six semesters of Music Recitals 100 and twelve credits of elective 
courses in music, excluding ensembles. In addition to the course work, music majors 
are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during the 
freshman year and are required to audition during the second semester of their sopho- 
more year before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors may be invited by the music faculty to apply for admission 
to the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Music," a candidate must have a 3.0 overall GPA and a 3.5 GPA in courses in the 
major. In addition, the candidate must be nominated for this honor by a music faculty 
member and must complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level 
research paper, (2) an analysis project, (3) an original composition, (4) a lecture-recital, 
(5) a solo recital, (6) a chamber-music recital, (7) a solo concert with ensemble, or 
(8) a conducting project. More complete information is available from the Depart- 
ment of Music. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits 
of ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of applied music (performance 
level in applied music must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of 
the sophomore audition); six credits of music electives (excluding ensemble); and 
four semesters of Music Recitals 100. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in the 
music department and is encouraged to begin private lessons, Music 171, and Music 
100, as early as possible. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair 
of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department 
of Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be 



141 



established at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music 
majors; four semesters are required of music minors. 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and mu- 
sical terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from the 
Middle Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division I requirement. For 
students not majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected 
works from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can 
read music. Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division I requirement. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

202. Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open 
to music majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, chords, and basic sight-singing and ear- 
training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University ensembles 
and those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional instruction. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamen- 
tals and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional tech- 
niques. P— Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, inter- 
vals, triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. Fall. 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part- writing, basic counterpoint, 
ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P— Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth 
and nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard 
harmony. Fall. P— Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the twen- 
tieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, rhythm 
skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P— Music 173. 

270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on coun- 
terpoint. Composition of canon and motet. P— Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contrapuntal 
styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of 
J. S. Bach. Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P— Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers 
and the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and perform- 
ance preparation. P— Music 174. 



142 



273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. 
May be repeated for credit. P— Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P— Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered spring semester of even years. Also offered by the 
Department of Education as Education 280. P— Music 174, 182. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the Divi- 
sion I requirement. P— Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P— Permission of instructor. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., an- 
them, cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and liturgi- 
cal function. Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors 
and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the 
present. Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined 
in class via record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when 
possible. Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of 
instructor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 
1650 to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims 
to the current trends of American composers. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of 
instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society 
P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of 
their work to the church program. Offered fall semester of odd years. P— Permission of 
instructor. 



143 



215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musi- 
cal aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P— Music 174, 182. 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 1600, 
its theory, notation, and performance practices. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of 
instructor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolu- 
tions toward the end of the era. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the sons 
of Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. P— 
Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from the latter part of 
Beethoven's career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post- 
Beethoven schism and its ramifications. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P— 
Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by 
the Department of Education as Education 284. Course may be repeated. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 
354. These courses may be taken as Music or Education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments 
of the string family. Offered spring semester of odd years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered fall semester of even years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching 
brass and percussion. Offered spring semester of even years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 143 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 147 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See this page for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and 
choral and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education 
as Education 289. Fall. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 



144 



354. Methods and Materials of Teaching Music. (4) Methods, materials, and tech- 
niques used in the teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental music in 
the public schools, all grades. Also offered by the Department of Education as Edu- 
cation 354. Spring. P— Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise availa- 
ble in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (1,2,3, or 4) Individual study for honors candidates who have 
fulfilled the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis 
of one credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contemporary 
operatic works. P— Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P— Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the 
performance of secular repertoire. P— Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a vari- 
ety of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, 
including an annual tour. P— Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance 
of major choral works. P— Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice week- 
ly Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. P— Permission of instructor. 

119. Symphonic Band. Study and performance of music for symphonic band. Regular 
performances on and off campus. Spring. P— Permission of instructor. 

120. Chamber Ensemble. Study and performance of music composed specifically for 
small ensemble. Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensemble 
as well. P— Permission of instructor. 

a. percussion c. string 

b. wind/brass d. mixed 



145 



121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a 
twenty-member ensemble. P— Audition. 

Applied Music 

Applied music courses are open to all students with the permission of the instruc- 
tor. Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration and weekly preparation. One 
credit per semester implies a half-hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of one 
hour of daily practice. Two credits per semester imply an hour of instruction weekly 
and a minimum of two hours daily practice. With the permission of the music faculty 
and with a proportional increase in practice, a student may earn three or four credits 
per semester. Students in applied music who do not have basic knowledge of nota- 
tion and rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 101 or 104 either prior to or in 
conjunction with applied study. An applied music fee is charged for all individual 
instruction. (See page 37 of this bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161, 261. Individual Instruction. (1,2,3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. Technical 
studies and repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abili- 
ties of the student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m. 


baritone 


v. voice 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. 


tuba 


zo. recorder 


c. cello 


i. saxophone 


0. 


organ 


x. viola da gamba 


d. bass 


j. trumpet 


V- 


piano 


y. harpsichord 


e. flute 


k. French horn 


q- 


percussion 




f. oboe 


I. trombone 


r. 


guitar 





165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for 
the beginning piano student. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, ar- 
peggios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar tabla- 
ture. For beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P— Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, concepts 
of breath control, tone, and resonance. Fall. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P— Music 
165v or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, 
articulation, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed 
for beginning and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare 
students for Music 112, but is not a prerequisite. 



146 



167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and per- 
formance of musical theatre repertoire. (One hour per week.) Fall. 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1) Continuation of theatrical singing tech- 
niques with increased study and performance of musical theatre repertoire. P— Music 
167v or permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

175 v. Advanced Voice Class I. (1) Development of advanced vocal technique and reper- 
toire. Limited to 8 students. (Two hours per week.) P— Music 166v or permission of 
instructor. 

176 v. Advanced Voice Class II. (1) Further development of advanced vocal tech- 
nique and repertoire. Limited to 8 students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) 
P— Music 175v or permission of instructor. 

177v. Advanced Theatrical Singing I. (1) Development of advanced theatrical sing- 
ing technique and performance of musical theatre repertoire. Limited to 8 students. 
(Two hours per week.) P— Music 168v or permission of instructor. 




147 



178v. Advanced Theatrical Singing II. (1) Further development of advanced theatri- 
cal singing technique and performance of musical theatre repertoire. Limited to 8 
students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) P— Music 177v or permission of 
instructor. 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on modifi- 
cation of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Development of 
articulatory and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. Individual 
performance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. Also offered by the Department of Edu- 
cation as Education 282. P— Music 174 or permission of instructor. 



Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of Philosophy 
and History of Science 

301. Seminar: The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the transi- 
tion from ancient views of the world to the perspective of early modern science and 
philosophy, with focus on the works of Plato, Aristotle, Kepler, and Galileo. 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scientific 
and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, Newto- 
nians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P— At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science 
or permission of instructor. 

320. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

351. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciences and the humanities. 

352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for 
extraterrestrial life. 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of 
science. By invitation only. 



148 



Philosophy 

Gregory D. Pritchard, Chairman 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, 

Charles M. Lewis, Gregory D. Pritchard 

Associate Professors Ralph C. Kennedy III, Win-chiat Lee 

Instructor Charles J. Kinlaw 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

A major in philosophy requires thirty-six credits. The courses must include 261 
and either 161 or 271, two courses from the history sequence (201, 211, 222), and 
one course from each of the following: 230, 231, 241, 242, 243, 256 or 258; and 262, 
275, 279, 282, 285 or 287. In addition to these courses, a major in philosophy requires 
a "major paper," consisting of approximately twenty typewritten pages to be submit- 
ted for a course, chosen by the student from among courses in philosophy taken 
during his or her last three semesters. This paper may also satisfy the term paper 
requirement for the course. 

A minor in philosophy requires five courses, one of which will be either Philosophy 
111, 171, or 172. These courses are to be chosen in accordance with one of the following 
plans. Although plans A, B, and C are designed to complement majors in the speci- 
fied areas, any one of the plans may be chosen by someone who wants to pursue 
other interests. 

(A) Art, Literature, and Religion (B) Natural Science and Mathematics 
Philosophy of Art and/or Philoso- Philosophy of Science; Logic and/ 

phy of Religion; one or more con- or Symbolic Logic; one or more of 

centration courses (230, 231, 241, the following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 

242, 258); one or more of the 230, 231, 241, 258, 275, 279, 280. 

following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 261, 275. 

(C) Social Science, Politics, and Law (D) Open Plan 

Ethics and/or Philosophy of Law; With departmental approval, a 

Logic and/or Symbolic Logic; one fourth option will be available to 

or more of the following: 201, 211, students for whom none of the 

225, 230, 231, 241, 242, 258, 262, specified plans would be appropri- 

275, 279, 287. ate. 

The Spilman Philosophy Seminar, open to advanced students in philosophy, was 
established in 1934 through an endowment provided by Bernard W. Spilman. The 
income from the endowment is used for the seminar library, which contains about 
4,000 volumes. Additional support for the library and other departmental activities 
is provided by the A. C. Reid Philosophy Fund, which was established in 1960 by 
friends of the department. The furniture in the library and seminar room was donated 
in honor of Claude V. Roebuck and Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Hough by their families. 

Two distinguished alumni of the College have made possible the establishment 
of a lectureship and a seminar. Guy T. Carswell endowed the Guy T and Clara 



149 



Carswell Philosophy Lectureship, and a gift from James Montgomery Hester 
established the Hester Philosophy Seminar. In addition, a lectureship bearing his 
name has been instituted in honor of Claude V. Roebuck. 

Superior majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the honors 
program in philosophy. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Philoso- 
phy," a qualified student must submit an acceptable prospectus for an honors thesis 
by November for graduation in the spring semester or by May for graduation in the 
fall semester, present a satisfactory paper based on the prospectus (as judged by the 
student's honors adviser and at least one other member of the department), and show 
an acceptable level of performance in a discussion of the paper with the honors adviser 
and at least one other member of the department. In lieu of a prospectus, the student's 
"major paper" may be submitted, provided that this occurs in the semester before 
the semester in which he or she is to graduate and provided that the paper is rewritten 
in view of criticism and additional research materials as appropriate for an honors 
paper. 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of several 
representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowledge, 
man, God, mind, and matter. 

161. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of fal- 
lacies, and logical analysis. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religious 
and philosophical ideas in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either 
Philosophy 171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 
172 satisfy both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

175. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally 
different? Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite 
or infinite in extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes 
in the concept of space and in the concept of time travel. P— Philosophy 111, 171, 
or 172. 

182. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in the practice of medicine, in- 
cluding informed consent, experimentation on human subjects, truthtelling, confiden- 
tiality, abortion, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. P— Philosophy 111, 
171, or 172. 

184. Applied Ethics. (4) A critical analysis of contemporary moral issues, including 
capital punishment, minority rights and their protection, civil disobedience, eutha- 
nasia, family relationships, and sexual conduct. 

201. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such 
as the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 
Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

211. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to 
Nietzsche. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 



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222. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A survey of major twentieth-century philosophers, 
including Russell and Sartre. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

225. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan 
Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, C. S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others, 
examining their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, education, 
and God. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

226. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction 
to the most important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, 
Daoism (Taoism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Same 
as Religion 380.) 

230. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most important 
contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, metaphysics, 
and theology. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

231. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, 
and theory of knowledge. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

241. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important con- 
tributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

242. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources 
embodying the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as 
they relate to each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

243. Early German Idealism. (4) An examination of the development of post-Kantian 
idealism through the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with particu- 
lar emphasis on their efforts to address the challenge of critical philosophy. 

256. Heidegger. (4) An examination of the structure and development of Heidegger's 
philosophy from the ontological analysis in Being and Time to his later work in the 
philosophy of language and poetry. 

258. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philo- 
sophical problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. Topics 
include the picture theory of meaning, truth, scepticism, private languages, thinking, 
feeling, the mystical, and the ethical. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in ethical 
theory. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

262. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social 
and political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, 
Rawls, and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, 
the common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P— Philosophy 111, 171, 
or 172. 



151 



271. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of modern deductive logic, 
beginning with the logic of truth-functions and quantifiers, and including some dis- 
cussion of topics such as Church's thesis and theorem, the completeness of first-order 
logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorems. 

275. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the 
nature of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and con- 
temporary sources. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

279. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic exploration of the conceptual founda- 
tions of scientific thought and procedure. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

282. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its 
relation to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical 
and modern authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions 
of legal principle, personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punish- 
ment. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

285. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

287. Philosophy of Religion. (4) An analysis of the logic of religious language and 
belief, including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, revelation, and 
arguments for the nature and existence of God. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

294. Seminar in Epistemological Problems. (4) P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

295. Seminar in Metaphysical Problems. (4) P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

296. Independent Study. (2-4) 



Physics 

Howard W. Shields, Chairman 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors Robert W. Brehme, George M. Holzwarth, William C. Kerr, 

George Eric Matthews, Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professor Natalie A. W Holzwarth 

Assistant Professor Paul R. Anderson 

Adjunct Professor George B. Cvijanovich 

Adjunct Associate Professor C. Anne Wallen 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Peter Santago 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consulta- 
tion with the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or 
a bachelor of science degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics 
courses and allows a wide selection of electives related to the student's interests in 



152 



other disciplines. The BS degree is designed to prepare students for careers in physics, 
perhaps beginning with graduate study. 

The bachelor of arts degree in physics requires thirty-seven credits in physics and 
must include courses 141, 161, 164, 341, 343, and 345, and two from 230, 342, 351, 
352, and 354. The bachelor of science degree in physics requires forty-six credits in 
physics and must include courses 311, 341, 343, 344, 345, and 346. In special cases, 
the department may allow substitutions. For either degree, two courses in chemistry 
or the equivalent and Mathematics 251 are required; Mathematics 301, 302, 303, and 
304 are recommended. 

A typical schedule for the first two years: 

Freshman Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 141, 161, 164 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 251, 301, 302 
Foreign Language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with considera- 
ble flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year BA/MS program. 
This saves time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship 
in the senior year of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering 
program would also complete three years of the physics major BS program prior to 
transfer. (Consult the chairman for additional information on these five-year 
programs.) 

A minor in physics requires twenty-four credits including Physics 113, 114, 161, 
164, 341, and 230. Students interested in the minor should so advise the instructor 
of the second-year course. 

If physics is not taken in the freshman year, the degree requirements in physics 
may still be completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken 
in the sophomore year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major 
in physics with a grade less than C in general physics without special permission 
of the department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in 
all courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Physics," students must complete satisfactorily Physics 381 
and pass a comprehensive written examination. 

101. Conceptual Physics. (5) A non-mathematical introduction to the essential prin- 
ciples of classical and modern physics based on a conceptual treatment of the more 
exciting contemporary aspects of the subject. Credit not allowed for both 101 and 
113. Lab— two hours. 

104. Introductory Physics for Teachers. (3 or 4) No lab. Does not satisfy Division II 
requirements. 



153 



105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the so- 
lar system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 

106. Physics and the Sounds of Music. (3 or 4) A study of the production, propaga- 
tion, and perception of musical sounds. Satisfies no divisional requirements. No 
prerequisites; no lab. 

109. Astronomy. (5) An introductory study of the universe consisting of descriptive 
astronomy, the historical development of astronomical theories, and astrophysics. 
Laboratory consists of computer simulation of typical measurements basic to astrono- 
my. P— Basic algebra and trigonometry. Lab— two hours. Satisfies one semester of 
Division II requirements. 

110. Introductory Physics. (5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, 
electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for pre-medical, 
mathematics, and science students. Lab— two hours. Credit not allowed for both 110 
and 113. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Same topics as 110 treated with some use of calculus. 
Recommended for pre-medical, mathematics, and science students. One section of 
this course is reserved for freshmen who are prospective majors in a physical science. 
Lab— two hours. C— Mathematics 111 or equivalent. P— 113 is prerequisite for 114. 

130. Introduction to Microcomputers. (4) Microcomputer architecture and interfacing 
with an introduction to programming in BASIC, assembler, and machine language. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics 
and an introduction to quantum ideas. P— Physics 113 and Mathematics 111. 

161. Applied Mechanics. (5) The fundamental principles of mechanics. Lab— three 
hours. P— Physics 113 and Mathematics 111 or equivalent. 

164. Introductory Electricity. (1) Introduction to electronics instrumentation, DC and 
AC circuits, operational amplifiers, and transistors. A two-hour laboratory 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and elec- 
tronic circuits. Lab— three hours. P— Physics 164 or equivalent. 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

311. Mechanics. (4) A junior/senior level treatment of analytic classical mechanics. 
P— Physics 161 and Mathematics 251. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially pro- 
teins and nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary 
structure. P— Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfacing, 
signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduction 
and fitting procedures. P— Physics 130, 230. 



154 



341, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (4,4) First semester: electrostatics, magnetostat- 
ics, dielectric and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations. Second semester: appli- 
cations of Maxwell's equations to radiation, reflection, refraction, dispersion, 
polarization, transmission lines, plasmas, relativistic 4-vector formalism. P— Physics 
114, Mathematics 251; 341 is prerequisite to 342. 

343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quan- 
tum mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P— Physics 141 
and Mathematics 251. 

345, 346. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1,1) The laboratory associated with Physics 
343, 344. Lab— three hours. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; diffrac- 
tion and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab— three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P— Physics 
343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, computation, and laboratory work 
performed on an individual basis. 



Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chairman 

Professors David B. Broyles, Jack D. Fleer, Carl C. Moses, 

Donald O. Schoonmaker, Richard D. Sears 

Associate Professors Charles H. Kennedy, Kathleen B. Smith 

Assistant Professors Katy J. Harriger, Wei-chin Lee, David Weinstein 

Visiting Associate Professor William E. Schmickle 

Visiting Assistant Professor Yomi Durotoye 

Instructor Melissa Haussman 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the 
way in which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the 
moral standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often 
described alternatively as the study of power, of government, of the state, or of hu- 
man relations in their political context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics 
has been divided by the department into the following fields: (1) American politics, 
(2) comparative politics, (3) political philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introduc- 
tory courses in these fields provide broad and flexible approaches to studying politi- 
cal life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits, at least half of which must be 
completed at Wake Forest University. The courses must include the following: (a) 
a first course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any non-seminar course 



155 



in each of the four fields of the discipline except Politics 284, 285, 287, 288, 289; (c) 
one seminar in politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each 
field and no more than three seminars overall). No more than four credits for any 
one or any combination of the following courses may be counted toward the thirty- 
six credits required for the major: Politics 287, 288, and 289. A minimum grade aver- 
age of C on all courses attempted in politics is required for graduation. Majors should 
consult with their advisers concerning additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Politics," one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 
must be taken as additional courses beyond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. 
For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, including Politics 113 but excluding 
individual study and seminar courses. No more than eight credits may be from among 
the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Sixteen of the credits must be 
taken at Wake Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by the chairman. 
None of the courses may be taken pass/fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one 
of the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Students who are not majors 
in politics may take upper level courses as electives without having had lower-level 
courses, unless a prerequisite is specified. 



American Politics 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) A survey of the nature of politics, politi- 
cal principles, and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the 
United States. 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative policy 
responses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics 
of poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with 
the number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the respon- 
sibilities of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 

215. Democracy and Public Policymaking. (4) An examination of the role and 
responsibilities of citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of 
democratic theory, emphasis on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, 
crime, environment), and involvement of students in projects that examine the dimen- 
sion of the issue in their community. P— Permission of instructor. 



156 



217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the 
political system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of 
the mass media and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy 
analysis with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis 
and utility analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project 
centered on a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contribu- 
tions by contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Problems and Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American 
cities and suburbs as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of 
the metropolis. 

223. Blacks in American Politics (4). A survey of selected topics, including black po- 
litical participation, political organizations, political leadership, and political 
issues. It will also show the relationship of these phenomena to American political 
institutions and processes as a whole. 

225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. 

(4) An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national 
government and federal/state relations. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality, and the rights of the criminally accused. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) A survey of political processes and 
principles as applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analysis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 



157 



232. Government and Politics in the Soviet Union. (4) Analysis of the institutions 
and processes of politics in the USSR and examination of political developments in 
other states of Eastern Europe. 

233. The Politics of West and East Germany. (4) A study of the political behavior 
and governmental institutions of the capitalist democratic regime of West Germany 
and the authoritarian socialist regime of East Germany. 

235. The Politics of Revolution. (4) A study of revolution as an alternative means 
of socio-political change. Analysis of the nature and types of revolution as well as 
causes, processes, and consequences. Attention is given to some historical cases and 
to some current revolutionary situations and movements. 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An 

investigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, educa- 
tion, and income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The 
origins, development, trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, 
West Germany, and Sweden. 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend 
our knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights 
of selected novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Penn 
Warren, George Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments of India, 
Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon. Emphasis on political organizations, party structures, 
and subnational governmental systems. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to po- 
litics and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and 
politics in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals 
with Islam as a political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions 
and behavior. The second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction 
between Islam and the political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis 
on group conflict, elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process 
of modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention also is given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 



158 



International Politics 

116. International Politics. (4) A survey of the forces which shape relations among 
states and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in inter- 
national affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and 
present critiques in oral and written fashion. 

252. Problems in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) A study of the emergence 
of international economic transactions, including trade, monetary affairs, investment, 
and multinational corporations, as a central aspect of world politics. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination 
of different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies 
followed by the United States since the early 1960s. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national poli- 
cy. Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special attention will 
be given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear weapons. 

257. United States-Latin American Political and Economic Relations. (4) A descrip- 
tive and analytical study of the bilateral and multilateral political relations of the La- 
tin American states and the United States, with particular reference to the economic 
interactions which influence them. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how U.S. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the rela- 
tionship between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United 
States, Israeli, Palestinian, and Arab states policies. 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on 
the security relations and economic interactions. 

267. America in Vietnam: Myth and Reality. (4) An analysis of American policy 
towards Vietnam with special emphasis on the period of 1954-1975. The focus will 
be on the relationship between American policies and the problems posed by Viet- 
namese and American cultures. 

Political Philosophy 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) A survey of major systematic statements of the rules 
and principles of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and 
Aristotle. 



159 



270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) An intensive study of one or more major topics 
in political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the 
nature and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens 
and its diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to 
such problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and 
Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) The good man and the good citizen as compre- 
hended in classical political philosophy. Representative writers are Aristotle, Plutarch, 
Aquinas, Shakespeare. 

275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the Ameri- 
can polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative writers 
are the Federalists, Lincoln, modern political scientists, and radical critics. 

278. Modern Political Philosophy. (4) Political thought in the period from Machiavelli 
to the present, including such topics as democracy, equality, liberty, radical theories, 
and/or the rise of "scientific" political theory. Representative writers include Hobbes, 
Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Marx and Heidegger. 

279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 

Honors and Individual Study 

284. Honors Study. (3) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior 
year by all candidates for departmental honors. 

285. Honors Study. (2) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in 
Politics 284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring 
semester of the senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P— Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Intensive research leading to the completion of an 
analytical paper conducted under the direction of a faculty member. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. P— Permission of instructor. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with 
related readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. 
P— Permission of instructor. 



160 



Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

Psychology 

John E. Williams, Chairman 
Professors Robert C. Beck, Deborah L. Best, Robert H. Dufort, 

Charles L. Richman, John E. Williams 

Associate Professors David W Catron, Philippe R. Falkenberg, 

David Allen Hills, Mark R. Leary, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professors Terry D. Blumenthal, Dale Dagenbach 

Visiting Assistant Professors Sarah S. Catron, Kelly B. Kyes, 

Catherine E. Seta 

Adjunct Associate Professors C. Drew Edwards, Jay R. Kaplan, Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Marianne A. Schubert, Carol A. Shively, 

Susan B. Wallace 
Adjunct Instructor Randall C. Kyes 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses num- 
bered below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major 
in psychology. Psychology 211, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequi- 
site for all 300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 357, 358, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their freshman year and Psychology 211 no later than the fall of 
their junior year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the 
time the major is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a mini- 
mum of forty credits in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, 
the major student must complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 
320, 326, 329, 331, and 333; 341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than 48 psychology credits 
may be counted toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology, distributed as 
follows: 151 (4 credits); 211 (5 credits); at least one of the following courses: 320, 326, 
329, 331, 333 (4 credits each); and seven additional credits in courses numbered 200 
or above. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and 



161 



pass an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally has 
a non-credit research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop designed primarily for first and second- 
year students who wish to improve their academic skills through the application of 
basic principles of learning, memory, organization, etc. Third and fourth-year stu- 
dents by permission of the instructor only. No prerequisites. Pass/fail only. 

102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational/vocational 
planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. 
No prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and statisti- 
cal analysis of psychological research. Lab— twice weekly. P— Psychology 151 and per- 
mission of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of conscious- 
ness with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. 
P— Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and 
social development in humans from conception to death. P— Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depression, 
alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personality 
patterns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these dis- 
orders to normal lifestyles. P— Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content 
and travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and stu- 
dents. Usually offered in summer. P— Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of 
human personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motiva- 
tion, and behavior. P— Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P— 
Psychology 151. 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological 
aspects of human sexuality, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual 
dysfunction, and sex-related roles. P— Psychology 151. 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P— Psychology 
151. 



270 A 


Aggression 


27 OP 


27 OD 


Brain/Behavior Relations 


270Q 


270E 


Emotion 


27 OR 


270H 


Intelligence 




2701 


Race and Young Children 


270S 


270] 


Memory 


270T 


27 OK 


Psychology and Politics 


270U 


2701 


Sex Stereotypes and Roles 


270V 


270 M 


The Gifted and Creative Person 


270W 


270N 


Liking and Loving Relationships 


27 OX 



162 



270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short 
one-credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequen- 
tially, not concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P— 
Psychology 151. 

Animal Flying Behavior 
Psychopharmacology 
The Human Factor: Designing 
Your Own World 
Primate Cognition 
Psychological Impact of Racism 
The Self and Social Behavior 
Prejudice and Stereotyping 
270W Problem Solving and Decision Making 
Psychobiology 

280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. 
P— Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological 
thought and research from ancient Greece to present trends, with emphasis on 
intensive examination of original sources. P— Two psychology courses beyond 151 
or permission of instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical expla- 
nations of behavior. P— Psychology 211 or permission of instructor. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to 
be made at registration. P— Psychology or biology major or permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learn- 
ing, with particular emphasis on recent developments. P— Psychology 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory sys- 
tems (vision, hearing, touch, taste). P— Psychology 211. 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis 
on memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept iden- 
tification/formation, and language. P— Psychology 211. 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P— Psychology 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some 
fundamental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; 
includes reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement 
and power, aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P— Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in child development. Research projects required. P— Psychology 211. 






163 



342. Current Issues in Developmental Psychology. (4) Intensive examination of select- 
ed theoretical or research issues in this area. P— Psychology 211 and 341. 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major 
modes of therapy. Offered in the summer. P— Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including conduct 
disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on causes, 
prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child develop- 
ment and family life. P— Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures 
to the study of human personality. Research projects required. P— Psychology 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in the study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P— 
Psychology 211. 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) as- 
sociated with cultural variation. P— Psychology 151. 

358. Psychology of Woman. (4) Intensive study of the behavior of women and its 
personal application, including consideration of biological, social, and motivational 
factors. P— Psychology 151. 

361. Operant Conditioning and Behavior Modification. (4) Principles, theory, and 
experimental research in operant learning, with applications to the modification of 
behavior in various populations and situations. P— Psychology 211. 

362. Psychological Tests and Measurements. (4) Theory and application of psycho- 
logical assessment procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational in- 
terest, and personality. P— Psychology 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychol- 
ogy. P— Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches 
to child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child inter- 
action and actual training in parental skills. P— Psychology 151. 

369. Contemporary Applications of Psychology. (4) Supervised field experience in 
applied psychology. P— Psychology 151 and permission of instructor. 

378. Instrumentation for Psychological Research. (2-4) Lecture/demonstration 
presentation of electrical and mechanical equipment, followed by practical applica- 
tion in small group project work. Assumes no prior knowledge of electricity or 
construction. P— Permission of instructor. 



164 



381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended 
primarily for students in the departmental honors program. P— Psychology 211 and 
permission of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed 
by independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the depart- 
mental faculty. P— Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current the- 
ory and research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior 
majors planning to attend graduate school. P— Psychology 211 and senior standing. 



Religion 

Carlton T. Mitchell, Chairman 

Albritton Professor Fred L. Horton Jr. 

Easley Professor Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

University Professor James A. Martin 

Wake Forest Professor Charles H. Talbert 

Professors John E. Collins, Carlton T. Mitchell 

Associate Professor Stephen B. Boyd 

Adjunct Associate Professor Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. 

Assistant Professors Kenneth G. Hoglund, Judith W. Kay, Alton B. Pollard III 

Visiting Assistant Professor Wilton O. Seal Jr. 

Instructor Carol Zinn 

Visiting Lecturer Thomas P. Liebschutz 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to 
acquire at least an introduction to the life, literature, and most important movements 
in the field of religion. It also seeks to provide the foundational courses needed for 
professional religious service in ministry, counseling, chaplaincy, and the like. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Any 100-level course offered by 
the department is accepted to meet the Division III requirement. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which 
must be in courses above the 100 level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100 
level. The required courses may include one pass/fail course if the course is offered 
on the pass/fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing 
the minor in religion. 

Pre-ministerial students are advised to include in their program of study, in addition 
to courses in religion, courses in psychology, history, public speaking, and two lan- 
guages (Greek or Latin and German or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in religion. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Religion," they must apply to the chairman of the department for admission to the 
honors program, normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all 



165 



the requirements, the candidate is graduated with "Honors in Religion." For addi- 
tional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed 
to introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in 
the Old and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) A study of prominent themes, figures, and issues 
in Christian ethics, with attention to selected contemporary problems. 

151. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the structures of society— political, economic, and others, with spe- 
cial focus on the contemporary United States. (Same as Sociology 301.) 

162. World Religions: Hinduism and Islam. (4) An introductory study of some of 
the fundamental teachings of Hinduism and Islam, with an emphasis on selected 
sacred texts. 

163. World Religions: Buddhism and Taoism. (4) An introductory study of some 
of the fundamental teachings of Buddhism and Taoism, with an emphasis on selected 
sacred texts. 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. American Religious Life. (4) A study of the history, organization, worship and 
beliefs of American religious bodies, with particular attention to cultural factors. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religion 
and philosophy in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either Religion 
171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 172 satisfy 
both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

173. Basic Christian Beliefs. (4) An introduction to the language of Christian faith, 
its central images and doctrines, its root narrative and practices, and its essential 
terms and truths. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C. S. Lewis 
and J. R. R. Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

209. The Pre-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteris- 
tics, function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Samuel 
through Jeremiah. 



166 



210. The Post-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteris- 
tics, function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Ezekiel 
to the end of the Old Testament era. 

212. The Wisdom Literature. (2) An introduction to the Wisdom Literature of the 
Old Testament, with special attention to Proverbs. 

217. Old Testament Apocrypha. (2) Reading of the books of the Apocrypha, with 
special attention to their origin and significance, and with a consideration of the 
ambivalence of Judaism and Christianity toward this literature. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries 
as Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 

235. Passion, Mind, and Power. (4) An examination of the relation between emotion, 
reason, and will in Christian ethical theory, ancient to modern, including feminist. 

261. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. (4) A study of the 
development of Rabbinic Judaism out of the sects and movements of first century 
Judaism. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of some 
major religious, political, and literary figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice 
in the Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in America, 
including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and contemporary 
movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theologians 
as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their concerns, 
including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 

273. Studies in Ecumenical Theology. (4) A study of various images and models of 
the church, their interrelationships and implication for ecumenism. 

277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces 
of literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, 
Milton, and Newman. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department. P— Permission of instructor. 

292. Teaching Religion. (4) A study of the teaching of religion in church, school, 
and community. 



167 



300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociolo- 
gists, anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus 
on the meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Studies in Mysticism. (2,4) A student may choose to study mysticism as an 
independent phenomenon or to study mysticism in dialogue with the theories of 
contemporary science. 

302 (a) Phenomenology of Mysticism 
302 (b) Mysticism and Psychology 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and 
science have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the histo- 
ry of Western thought from Galileo to the present. 

311. Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English 
translation with special attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteris- 
tics, and its importance for our understanding of the religion and culture of ancient 
Israel. (The first half of the course may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite 
for the second half.) 

313. Near Eastern Archeology. (4) A survey of twentieth century archeology in the 
Near East with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

314. Ancient Israel and Her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeology 
with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315. 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and culture 
of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an ancient site. 

319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) Reading and study 
of Daniel. Revelation and certain non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity 
in light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

321. The Quest for the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the semi- 
nal "Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth century. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general Epis- 
tles, with emphasis on the setting of the Epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpre- 
tation of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 



168 



328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

332. Christian Ethics and Leadership. (2) A study of the moral practice of leadership 
from Christian and secular perspectives, with particular attention to the use of power 
and authority. 

333. Christian Ethics and the Professions. (2) A study of the nature of the profes- 
sions in contemporary society their foundational ethical suppositions, and the sig- 
nificance of being Christian for professional conduct. 

334. Christian Approaches to Bio-Medical Ethics. (4) An examination of Catholic and 
Protestant understandings of life and death, with analysis of ethical issues in the con- 
text of the U.S. health-care system. 

336. Roman Catholic and Protestant Ethics. (4) A study and comparison of Catholic 
natural law ethics and Protestant responsibility ethics. 

338. Ethics in Feminist Perspective. (4) A study of the implications of feminist theol- 
ogies, social theories, and views of human nature for ethical theory and practice. 

341. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious 
history of the African-American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World 
War II to the present. (Same as History 376.) 

342. Religion, Culture, and Modernity. (4) An inquiry into the origins and develop- 
ment of modernity as idea and ideology, with special emphasis on its significance 
for non-Western social and religious movements. 

343. The City as Symbol. (4) A study of the city, past and present, as a unique reposi- 
tory and symbol of human values and aspirations. 

345. The African-American Religious Experience. (4) An exploration of the religious 
dimensions of African-American life from its African antecedents to contemporary 
figures and movements. 

346. Theological Foundations of Religious Education. (4) A study of theological 
methodology, theories of learning, and philosophies of education in terms of their 
implications for religious education. 

347. The Emerging Church in the Two-Thirds World. (4) An investigation of contem- 
porary Christian communities in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America with 
special attention to theological, political, and economic activities. 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in 
the origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and develop- 
ment through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role 
of the home and the church in religious education. 



169 



355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship be- 
tween theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. 

360. Hinduism. (4) An advanced study of the Hindu tradition. P— Permission of in- 
structor required. 

361. Buddhism. (4) An advanced study of the Buddhist tradition and its impact on 
the culture of Asia. P— Permission of instructor required. 

362. Zen Buddhism. (4) The history and teaching of Zen. 

363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions 
of method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, 
Hellenistic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 

364. Islam. (4) An advanced study of Islamic thought and the historical context of 
its development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of the teachings of Islam 
considered. P— Permission of instructor required. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from co- 
lonial times until the present. 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism, and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of 
selected Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and de- 
velopment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and develop- 
ment to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. The Origins of Existentialism. (4) A study of the principal nineteenth century 
figures who form the background for twentieth century existentialism: Goethe, Kier- 
kegaard, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy. 



170 



377. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of 
the source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and 
Shakespeare. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (4) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories 
of selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes 
of perception and expression. 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction 
to the most important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, 
Daoism (Taoism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Same 
as Philosophy 226.) 




171 



Hebrew 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew 
of the Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading 
of Biblical texts. Both semesters must be completed. 

153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. 
P— Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P— Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and 
post-Biblical texts. Offered on demand. P— Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of 
four languages from the Hamito-Semitic family 



Romance Languages 

Byron R. Wells, Chairman 

Professors Kathleen M. Glenn, Milorad Margitic 

Associate Professors Mary L. Friedman, Candelas M. Newton, 

Byron R. Wells, M. Stanley Whitley 

Assistant Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Gunnar Anderson, Sarah E. Barbour, 

Jan Bardsley, Debra Boyd-Buggs, Ramiro Fernandez, Judy K. Kem, 

Linda Maier, Pat Moran, Stephen Murphy, 

Juan Orbe, Antonio Vitti, Kari Weil 

Lecturer Eva Marie Rodtwitt 

Instructors Guy Arcuri, David Glass, Anna Krauth, Bill B. Raines, 

Jennifer Sault, Walter W Shaw, Alison T. Smith, 

Anna-Vera Sullam (Venice), Florence Toy 

The major in French literature requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 
213. French 216, 217, 219, 221 or their equivalents are required, as are four additional 
literature courses. The major in French language and culture requires a minimum 
of thirty-six credits above French 213. French 216, 217, 219, 221, 223, 224, 228 or their 
equivalents are required. History 321 and 322 are recommended. An average of at 
least C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 213. It includes French 219, 221, 224, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 213. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 214. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 221, 223, 224, or their equivalents plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish-American literature, are required. 
Spanish 181, 1829, and 187 may not count toward the major. An average of at least 
C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 



172 



The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish above 
Spanish 214. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 221, 223, and 224. The minor in Hispan- 
ic literature requires twenty credits in Spanish above Spanish 214. It includes 217 
and 218, plus three additional advanced courses in Spanish and Spanish-American 
literature. For both Spanish minors, with departmental approval, equivalent courses 
may be selected from the programs in Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other sub- 
stitutions may be made. 

The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above 
Italian 153. It includes Italian 215, 216, 219, 221, and 224 or their equivalents. An average 
of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs. French majors are urged to live for at least a semester at the French House, 
a foreign language residence theme house for students of French. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Romance Languages," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 
and 281 and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examina- 
tion may be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional infor- 
mation, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering the principles 
of French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elemen- 
tary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received 
credit for French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P— French 112, 113, or two 
years of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 

164. A Classic in Comedy. (2 or 4) Participants plan and present a production of a 
French comedy. The play is rehearsed and performed in French; students are involved 
in all aspects of production. For four credits, students also read and discuss other 
dramatic works. Course may be repeated for credit, but only four credits may be count- 
ed toward the major. P— Permission of instructor. 

181. Swiss French Civilization. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student 
with the Swiss people and their civilization by living for a few weeks with families. 
Visits are made to points of cultural, historical, literary, and artistic interest. A journal 
and a paper describing in detail some aspect of Swiss French civilization, both in 
French, are required. Usually offered in the summer. 



173 



185. Paris, Cultural Center of France. (4) A study of Paris monuments on location 
to explore the development of the city as capital and cultural center of France. No 
prerequisites. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

213. Masterpieces of French Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. 
Particular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel 
reading and reports. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

216. Survey of French Literature from the Middle Ages through the Eighteenth 
Century. (4) Study of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and move- 
ments. P— French 153 or permission of instructor. 

217. Survey of French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (4) Study 
of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and movements. P— French 
153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic French. 
Required for major. P— French 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

222. History and Structure of the Language. (4) Study of the historical development 
of French in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present 
and analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern French. P— French 
219 and 221. 

223. French Phonetics. (2) A study of the principles of standard French pronuncia- 
tion, with emphasis on their practical application as well as on their theoretical basis. 

224. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical de- 
velopment. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life of 
France. P— French 221 or permission of instructor. 

228. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French 
life today. P— French 221 or permission of instructor. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasizing 
specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organiza- 
tion, banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpre- 
tations, oral and written. P— French 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 



174 



231. Medieval French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the Middle 
Ages with cultural and political backgrounds. Selected masterpieces in original form 
and modern transcription. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

233. Sixteenth Century French Literature. (4) The literature and thought of the Renais- 
sance in France, with particular emphasis on the works of Rabelais, Montaigne, and 
the major poets of the age. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

241. Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of the outstanding writers 
of the Classical Age. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

242. Seminar in Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics may vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

251. Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the 
eighteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of French literature of the 
nineteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

262. Seminar in Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

263. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P— French 216 or 217 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

264. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of 
several masterpieces in the field. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

265. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with reading 
and discussion of representative plays. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

271. Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of the foremost prose writers, dramatists, and poets. P— French 216 or 
217 or permission of instructor. 

272. Seminar in Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

274. African and Caribbean Literatures in French. (4) An introduction to the litera- 
ture and culture of the French-speaking countries of Africa and the Caribbean. 



175 



Emphasis will be placed upon the contemporary negro-African novel along with high- 
lights of culture and civilization. 

275. Special Topics in French Literature. (2,4) Selected themes or approaches to French 
literature that transcend boundaries of time and genre. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and/or research to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P— Permission of the department. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1) should be of 
junior standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 221 or its equiva- 
lent or at least one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's 
residence in the French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, 
as ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French profes- 
sors. The resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs 
and has general oversight of independent study projects. 

2232. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pronun- 
ciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2282. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French 
life today. 

2292. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural sig- 
nificance in Paris and the French provinces. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research 
paper. Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be 
supplemented by lectures on the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte 
des Lettres et Sciences Humaines. 

2742. Special Topics in French Literature. (2) Selected topics in French literature; topics 
vary from year to year. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theatre, and poetry of France, largely 
of the period since 1850. 

2762. Literary Pilgrimage. (2-4) Reading of selected French texts, with visits to sites 
having literary associations. A study of the relationship between milieux and works. 



176 



Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

History 2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and 
government in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and 
Charles the Rash, 1384-1477. 

Spanish 

111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar 
essentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in 
another language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. 
Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. P— Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high 
school Spanish and placement. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

162. A Panorama of Drama. (2-4) A brief sampling of Spanish drama from its early 
period to the contemporary theatre, studying in Spanish representative works from 
each major period. Approximately six plays. The class selects one play to present 
in Spanish, with students having directing and acting responsibilities. 

187. Culture and Language. (4) A study of Spanish culture and language, tailored 
to various levels of student ability Taught only in the Spanish-speaking world. Does 
not count toward the major. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

214. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American literature. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P— Spanish 153 
or equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and move- 
ments. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. P— Spanish 153 or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, 
and movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the 
basic requirement. P— Spanish 153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic Span- 
ish. Lab required. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 



177 



221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Spanish, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary of everyday situations. Lab required. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) An introduction to Spanish linguistics through a 
systematic analysis of the phonemes and allophones of spoken Spanish. Standard 
pronunciation as well as dialectal variations will be stressed. P— Spanish 219 and 221 
or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; em- 
phasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— 217 or 218. 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis 
on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— 217 or 218. 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the spe- 
cial vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written and telegraphic communi- 
cations. Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type of corre- 
spondence. P— Spanish 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

230. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major literary 
works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

232. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary works of the Golden Age. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

233. Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of a represen- 
tative selection of poetry, drama, essays, and novels of these two centuries. P— Spanish 
217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

241. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderdn de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P— Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

243. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

252. Spanish Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, the Roman- 
cero, and the Generation of 1927. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

262. Spanish-American Poetry. (4) Intensive study and textual analysis of Spanish- 
American poetry with special emphasis on representative poets and major trends: 
Culteranismo, epic poetry, gaucho poetry, Modernismo, avant garde poetry, and anti- 
poetry. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 



178 



263. Contemporary Spanish-American Theatre. (4) A study of the Spanish-American 
dramatic production from the end of the 19th century to the present. The course 
focuses on the development of some of the main dramatic movements of the 20th 
century: realism, absurdism, avant garde, and collective theatre. P— Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

264. Spanish-American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century 
Spanish-American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative 
authors, such as Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marquez. P— 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

265. Spanish-American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish America from 
its beginning through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

266. Seminar in Spanish-American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories 
of Spanish-American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

273. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

274. Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contemporary works 
representative of the novel, poetry, theatre, and essay. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish literature. P— Spanish 
217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

276. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish-American literature. P— 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P— Permission of the department. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well- 
established Spanish university Students go as a group in the spring semester, 
accompanied by a professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1) should be of 
junior standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 221, and (3) should be approved 
by both their major department and the Department of Romance Languages. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, ex- 
cursions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 



179 



2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written lan- 
guage. P— Permission of instructor. 

2029. Advanced Spanish. (2) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, 
with extensive practice of the written and oral language. P— Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2059. History of the Spanish Language. (4) Evolution and historical development 
of the Spanish language, including regional dialects and present-day variations in 
the spoken and written form. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important authors 
and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman 
period to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and 
uniqueness of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean 
and Western art in general. 

Chinese* 

111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Study in grammar, conversation, reading, and 
elementary composition. Lab required. 

151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, conversa- 
tion and composition. Lab required. P— Chinese 111, 112 or equivalent. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Modern Chinese Literature. (4) Readings in modern 
prose and poetry, primarily from May 4th era to the present. Comparison of modern 
written Chinese with classical literary and documentary styles. P— Chinese 152 or 
permission of the instructor. 



*These courses are attached to the Department of Romance Languages for administrative purposes only. 



180 



Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing 
the structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the 
Venice program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture— five hours. Offered 
every semester. 

127. Basic Conversation. (2) Brief review of grammar; emphasis on vocabulary build- 
ing and conversation for everyday survival while discovering Italy and Italian cul- 
ture through film, TV documentaries and literature. P— Italian 113 or equivalent. Does 
not satisfy requirements for minor or certification in Italian studies. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture— five hours. P— Italian 113 or two years of high school 
Italian. Also offered in Venice. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Satis- 
fies basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P— Italian 153 or equiva- 
lent. Also offered in Venice. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P— Italian 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A thorough review of the basics of 
structure and vocabulary featuring a more detailed examination of complex syntax 
and idiomatic expressions; practice in translation of texts of diverse styles and from 
varied sources, and free composition. P— Italian 215 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing 
Italian, stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluen- 
cy, and vocabulary for everyday situations. P— Italian 219. 

224. Italian Civilization I. (4) The culture and its historical development from 
Charlemagne to the Risorgimento; emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, 
and economic life. P— Italian 215 or 216. 

225. Italian Civilization II. (4) The historical development of modern Italian culture 
from the Risorgimento to the present. Use of newspapers, magazines, TV broadcasts, 
films, and literary readings to stimulate oral and written responses to the problems 
of contemporary Italy. P— Italian 215 or 216. 



181 



Semester in Venice 
153. Intermediate Italian. (5) 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) 

See the course listings under Italian for descriptions and prerequisites. 

Japanese* 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening and 
speaking skills. Brief introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence patterns co- 
vered. Lab required. 

151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, conversa- 
tion and composition. Lab required. P— Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of instructor. 

211. Introduction to Modern Japanese Literature. (4) Readings in modern prose and 
poetry, primarily from the Meiji era (1868) to the present. P— Japanese 152 or per- 
mission of the instructor. 

Portuguese* 

111, 112. Elementary Portuguese. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar es- 
sentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

Other Languages 

101. Self-Instructional Language. (4) A self-instructional language course covering 
the principles of grammar and pronunciation in one of the less commonly taught 
languages, such as Swedish, Arabic, or Thai. Individual self-instruction in the lan- 
guage of the student's choice through the use of recorded material and textbooks. 
Admission by petition to the Foreign Language Placement Review Committee. Elec- 
tive credit only; does not satisfy basic or divisional course requirements. 



*These courses are attacked to the Department of Romance Languages for administrative purposes only. 



182 



Sociology 

Philip J. Perricone, Chairman 

Professors John R. Earle, Catherine T. Harris, 

Willie Pearson Jr., Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Beverly Wright 

Assistant Professor Ian M. Taplin 

Visiting Assistant Professor Cynthia Gentry 

Instructor Vicky M. MacLean 

A major in sociology requires thirty-seven credits and must include Sociology 371 
and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 371. A 
minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
minor is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is re- 
quired for certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor 
are encouraged to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited 
to participate in all departmental functions. 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to 
pursuing a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of 
four concentrations: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and 
society, and 4) business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in 
the Handbook for Sociology Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociol- 
ogy office or any member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified majors 
are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 
must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 
defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take 
one of the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory-level 
course is required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such 
a prerequisite is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organiza- 
tion and disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the 
problems growing out of modern conditions and social change. 

154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, 
suicide, drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 



183 



205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a 
research technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. 
Not open to students who have had Art 119. P— Permission of instructor. 

301. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the other structures of society— political, economic and others, with 
special focus on the contemporary United States. (Also offered as Religion 151.) 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention 
will be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

303. Business and Society. (4) Historical development, organization, and current 
problems of business enterprises in American society. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the 
context of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. 
Consideration of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing 
roles for human interaction. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relation- 
ship to social change and to the communication of meanings. 

309. Sex and Human Relationships. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on 
human sexual behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications 
of changing gender roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence 
of the mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern 
man in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspective. 

321. Criminal Justice— The Police. (2,4) Introduction to the structure, organization, 
and operation of the American police system. 

322. Criminal Justice— The Courts. (2) The operation and social organization of Ameri- 
can criminal courts. Issues of plea bargaining, court overload, and the court's role 
in crime prevention will be discussed. 

323. Criminal Justice — Punishment and Corrections. (2) The purpose, structure, and 
practice of correctional institutions. Includes a review of the philosophical principles 
of punishment and deterrence, the historical development of prisons, and an evalu- 
ation of current alternatives to incarceration. 

325. Self and Society: An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects 
of social relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of 
social roles and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 



184 



333. The Urban Community. (4) A survey of materials relating to the community as 
a unit of sociological investigation, with emphasis on the urban setting. Of particu- 
lar value for social work or community planning. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the US. Assessment of significant contemporary writings on 
the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated 
with health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the 
social organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medi- 
cal practitioners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. So- 
cial and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field place- 
ment in a nursing home or similar institution. P— Permission of instructor. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with 
individual and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and 
historical conditions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in Ameri- 
can society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life 
span in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance 
of changes in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, 
and prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal 
and political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 

344. Women and Crime. (4) Course will focus on four major areas related to women 
and crime: women as offenders, the processing of women by the criminal justice 
system, women as victims, and women as criminal justice professionals. P— 341 and 
permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced Topics in Criminology and Criminal Justice. (4) Emphasis on current 
topics in the field of criminology and criminal justice such as measurement issues, 
ethical issues, history, crime and mass media, and theoretical debates. P— 341 and 
permission of instructor. 

346. Seminar on Social Utopias. (4) Survey of major Utopian literature; emphasis 
is placed upon both the social organization in Utopian proposals and their implicit 
critique of current society and social ideologies. 



185 



347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport 
and other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport 
and the functions of sport for society. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assess- 
ment of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the struc- 
ture, organization, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science. (4) Emphasis on the origins and growth of science in socio- 
historical perspective, reciprocal relations between science and society in the twen- 
tieth century, science as a social system. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing im- 
portance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media and 
a changing society. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimi- 
nation and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and socio- 
logical theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particu- 
lar emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 
writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sports, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the U.S. labor force. The individual's 
view of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. 
Use of some cross-cultural data. 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including dis- 
cussion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial de- 
velopment, and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power 
in society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth 
of the welfare state. 

365. Dependency Needs and Social Services. (4) Examination of various forms of 
dependency, such as social, economic, emotional, and physical, and community so- 
cial agencies designed to meet these needs. Use of relevant literature, field experience, 
and resource persons. 

371, 372. The Sociological Perspective. (4,5) A two-semester course dealing with the 
development and application of major theories and research methods in sociology. 
A continuing effort is made to enable the student to deal with current theoretically 



186 



oriented research. Regularly scheduled computer labs will be arranged during the 
Sociology 372 portion of the course. P— Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. 

380. Social Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in survey research. 
(A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for Biology 
380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Anthropology 380. A sociology major may 
take Anthropology 380 in lieu of Sociology 380 to meet major requirements.) 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P— Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out un- 
der the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chairman 

Professors Julian C. Burroughs Jr., Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professors Jo Whitten May, Darwin R. Payne 

Associate Professors Michael David Hazen, Jill Jordan McMillan 

Visiting Associate Professor Carol J. Jablonski 

Assistant Professor Allan D. Louden 

Visiting Assistant Professors John M. Gulley, Hyun Lee, Randall G. Rogan 

Adjunct Assistant Professor John T. Llewellyn 

Instructor Mary M. Dalton 

Adjunct Instructors Mary Lucy Bivins, Paige Pettyjohn Edley, 

Karen L. Oxzendine 

Lecturers Jonathan H. Christman, John E. R. Friedenberg, 

Patricia W. Toole, Mary R. Wayne 

Visiting Lecturer James H. Dodding 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

For convenience in advising majors, the department divides the study of speech 
communication and theatre arts into the following disciplines: (1) communication 
and (2) theatre arts. It is possible for a student either to concentrate in one of the 
two disciplines or to take courses in both. Specific courses of study for both majors 
and minors are worked out in consultation with departmental faculty members. 

A major in speech communication and theatre arts consists of a minimum of forty 
credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300-level. In order for a course to count 
toward a student's major, the student must earn a grade of C or higher in the course. 

A minor in the two fields listed in the first paragraph requires six courses for a 
minimum of twenty-four credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300-level. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in speech communication and theatre arts. To be graduated with 
the designation "Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts," they must 



187 



successfully complete 281. For additional information, members of the departmental 
faculty should be consulted. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics may be drawn from any theory or concept area of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, film, or theatre. 

281. Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. (4) A conference course 
involving intensive work in the area of special interest for selected seniors who wish 
to graduate with departmental honors. P— Permission of instructor. 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in a choice of interest to 
be approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. P— Permission of instructor. 

283. 284. Debate, Radio/Television/Film, Communication, or Theatre Arts Practi- 
cum. (2,2) Individual projects in the student's choice of debate, radio/television/film, 
communication, or theatre arts; includes organizational meetings, faculty supervi- 
sion, and faculty evaluation. No student may register for more than two credits of 
practicum in any semester. No student is allowed to take more than a total of eight 
credit units in practicum, only four credits of which may be counted toward a major 
in speech communication and theatre arts. Pass/fail only. P— Permission of instructor. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics will be drawn from theory or concept areas of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, film or theatre. 

Communication 

141. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio 
and television. 

142. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, 
and film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, 
public service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analyses, 
commentaries, and editorials). 

151. Public Speaking I. (4) A study of the nature and fundamentals of speech 
communication. Practice in the preparation and delivery of short speeches. 

152. Public Speaking II. (4) The preparation and presentation of short speeches to 
inform, convince, actuate, and entertain. P— Speech Communication 151. 

153. Interpersonal Communication. (4) The course is divided into three parts: 
communication theory, person-to-person communication, and small group interaction. 

155. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the principles of discussion and 
deliberation in small groups, with practice in group problem-solving and discussion 
leadership. 

156. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with 
emphasis on selection, analysis, and performance. 



188 



158. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advoca- 
cy: research, speeches, and debate. 

161. Voice Production and Development. (4) A study of the principles of voice 
production with emphasis on breath control, tone production, vocal variety, and ar- 
ticulation. 

241. Introduction to Mass Communication. (4) A historical survey of mass media 
and an examination of major contemporary media issues. 

242. Media Production: Studio. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and 
video media projects. Multiple camera studio production emphasized. Lecture/ 
laboratory. 

243. Media Production: Field. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and 
video media projects. Single camera field production and post-production empha- 
sized. Lecture/laboratory. 

245. Introduction to Film. (4) An introduction to the aesthetics of motion pictures 
through a study of the basic elements of film such as cinematography, editing, sound, 
lighting, color, etc. 

246. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

250. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theories, 
research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings 
share meanings and influence one another. 

251. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contem- 
porary society. 

255. Historical /Critical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to the the- 
ory and practice of rhetorical criticism with emphasis on contemporary rhetorical acts. 

256. Empirical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to the design and 
statistical analysis of communication research. 

261. Clinical Management of Speech and Language Disorders. (4) Methods used 
to correct speech disorders of voice, rhythm, language, and articulation; observation 
of methods used with selected cases in clinical or public school settings. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing-Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect 
of hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, 
speech reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired 
individual. 

263. Speech and Language Disorders I. (4) Study of the disorders of language, 
articulation, and rhythm, with special emphasis on functional disorders; focus is on 
the role the therapist plays in assisting the speech-handicapped child. Offered in al- 
ternate fall semesters. 



189 



264. Speech and Language Disorders II. (4) Consideration of etiology and symptoms 
of speech and language problems due to organic disorders of voice, articulation, lan- 
guage, and hearing. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

342. Seminar in Radio/Television. (4) Extensive readings in and discussion of fun- 
damental theory and current issues in radio and television. P— Speech Communica- 
tion 241 or permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced TV Production. (4) Individual production of complex forms of televi- 
sion such as documentary and drama. P— Speech Communication 243 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

346. Film Criticism. (3 or 4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the 
work of selected filmmakers and film critics. P— Speech Communication 245 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

347. Film History to 1945. (4) A survey of the developments of motion pictures to 
1945. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

348. Advanced Film Production. (4) Individual production of complex films such as 
drama, animation, and documentary. P— Speech Communication 246 or permission 
of instructor. 

349. Film History Since 1945. (4) A survey of the development of motion pictures 
from 1946 to the present day. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

354. American Rhetorical Movements. (4) Critical analysis of major rhetorical move- 
ments in American history; examines the relationship between rhetoric, ideology, 
and the development of American culture. 

S355. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of direct- 
ing high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate Work- 
shop. Offered in the summer. 

356. The Rhetoric of Race Relations. (4) A study of race relations in America as reflect- 
ed in the rhetoric of selected black and white speakers. Students apply the histori- 
cal/critical method in exploring the effects of discourse on attempts at interracial 
communication . 

357. The Rhetoric of the Women's Rights Movement. (4) A rhetorical study of the 
documents, speeches, and protests of American feminists. The course traces the evo- 
lution of women's rights movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and 
draws contrasts and parallels between them. 



190 



358. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criti- 
cism; examines both theoretical issues and social practices. 

371. Comparative Communication. (2,4) A comparison of communicative and rhe- 
torical processes in the United States with one or more other national cultures with 
an emphasis on both historical and contemporary phenomena. A. Japan B. Soviet 
Union C. Great Britain D. Multiple countries. 

372. A Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An introduction to the role 
of communication in organizations, with emphasis on field applications. 

373. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communica- 
tion phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. 

374. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of commu- 
nication in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of communi- 
cation. Offered in alternate years. 

375. Communication and Conflict. (4) A study of communication in conflict situa- 
tions on the interpersonal and societal levels. Offered in alternate years. P— Speech Com- 
munication 153 or permission of instructor. 

377. Political Communication. (4) Study of electoral communication, including can- 
didate and media influences on campaign speeches, debates, and advertising. Offered 
in alternate years. 

378. Semantics and Language Behavior. (4) A study of the syntactic and semantic 
aspects of communicative messages. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

Theatre Arts 

121. Introduction to the Theatre. (4) A survey of all areas of theatre art. Experience 
in laboratory and University Theatre productions. May be used to satisfy a require- 
ment in Division I. Lab— three hours. 

122. Introduction to Theatre Technology I. (4) An introductory course in theatre tech- 
nology focusing on the basic techniques of stagecraft, lighting, drafting, and 
sound. This course is of special interest to potential majors. Lab— three hours. Offered 
in the fall. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

123. Introduction to Theatre Technology II. (4) An introductory course in theatre tech- 
nology focusing on the basic techniques of costume construction, makeup, scene 
painting, and stage management. This course is of special interest to potential majors. 
Lab— three hours. Offered in the spring. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

218. Technical Graphics and Lighting. (4) The theory and practice of stage lighting 
including the techniques and terminology used in making both working and con- 
struction drawings for theatrical use. P— Theatre Arts 122. 



191 



219. Advanced Stage Makeup. (4) The theories, materials, and techniques of theatri- 
cal makeup. P— Theatre Arts 123. 

220. Advanced Costume Construction. (4) Pattern drafting, cutting, and construc- 
tion techniques of period theatrical costumes. P— Theatre Arts 123. 

221. Mime. (4) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain 
skills and understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, 
rehearsals, and performances. 

223. Stagecraft. (4) A study of the basic elements of theatre technology. Practical ex- 
perience gained in laboratory and University Theatre productions. Open to fresh- 
men and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab— five hours. 

226. Theories of Acting. (4) A study of acting theories and fundamental acting tech- 
niques. Open to freshmen and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab— two 
hours. 

227. Theatre Speech. (4) An intensive course in the analysis and correlation of the 
physiological, physical, and interpretative aspects of voice and diction on the stage. 

228. The Contemporary English Theatre. (2,3, or 4) An examination of the English 
theatre through reading, lectures, seminars, and attendance at numerous live theatre 
performances. The participants are expected to submit written reactions to the plays 
which are seen. Ample time to allow visits to museums, libraries, and historic places. 
Taught in London. P— Permission of instructor. 

280. Special Seminar. (4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Theatre Arts Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

3110. The English Theatre, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theatre from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, playwrights, 
actors, audiences, theatre architecture, theatre management, costumes, and sets. Field 
trips include visits to theatres, museums, and performances. Offered in London. 

316. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and 
acting Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. 
P— Theatre Arts 226. 

317. Theatrical Lighting Design. (4) The intensive study of the tools and aesthetics 
of the designer's craft with practical experience in designing for proscenium, thrust, 
and arena staging. P— Theatre Arts 122. 

318. Theatrical Special Effects. (4) A survey of the various special scenographic and 
lighting effects used in modern theatre. Special emphasis will be placed on effects 
used in productions done during the term. P— Theatre Arts 122 and 223. 

319. Costume: History and Design. (4) A study of the evolution of costume through 
the ages and the design of historic costume for the stage. P— Theatre Arts 121. 



192 



320. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the theories and styles of stage design 
and their application to the complete play. P— Theatre Arts 121 and 223 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

321. Play Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. 
A grade is not granted for this course until the student has completed Theatre Arts 

322. Lab— two hours. P— Theatre Arts 121 and 226 or permission of instructor. 

322. Play Production Laboratory. (2) A laboratory in the organization, the techniques, 
and the problems encountered in a dramatic production. The production of a play 
for public performance is required. P— Theatre Arts 321. 

323. Period and Style in Acting. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, 
and theatrical styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as 
well as in period plays. The course includes performances in class. P— Theatre Arts 226. 

324. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired 
in Theatre Arts 221 (Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course includes 
exercises, rehearsals, and performances. P— Theatre Arts 221. 

325. Advanced Acting. (4) A concentrated study of the actor's art through theory and 
practice. P— Theatre Arts 226 or permission of instructor. 

326. Performance Techniques. (4) A course in advanced acting techniques, focusing 
on acting styles appropriate to various modes of theatrical production. Specialized 
techniques such as dance, singing, stage combat, etc., may also be included. P— 
Theatre Arts 226. 

327. Theatre History I. (4) A survey of the development of the theatre from its ori- 
gins to 1870; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

328. Theatre History II. (4) A survey of the development of the modern theatre from 
1870 to the present day; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

329. Advanced Theatre Speech. (4) Specific study in the theory and personal develop- 
ment of vocal melody, rhythm, color, and harmony according to the form, style, and 
mood of a theatrical production. P— Theatre Arts 227 or permission of instructor. 

380. Special Seminar. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

3300. Modern English and Continental Drama and the London Stage. (4) Studies 
in the works of major playwrights of England and Europe from 1875 to the present. 
Particular emphasis will be placed on plays which are currently being presented in 
London theatres. Lectures, readings, reports and attendance at theatre performances. 

Taught in London. 

3310. A Survey of English Theatre History. (4) Beginning with the Elizabethan period 
and continuing into the twentieth century, this course will focus on the major periods 
of the English theatre. Students will study playwrights, actors, theatre architecture, 
production styles and audiences of each period. Lectures, student papers and reports. 
Field trips to theatres, museums, and performances. Taught in London. 



193 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor, Dean 

Professors Eddie V. Easley, Delmer P. Hylton, 

F. Jeanne Owen, Thomas C. Taylor 

Associate Professors Umit Akinc, Leon P. Cook Jr., A. Sayeste Daser, 

Arun P. Dewasthali, John S. Dunkelberg, Stephen Ewing, 

Thomas S. Goho, Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower, Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. 

Assistant Professors S. Douglas Beets, P. Candace Deans, J. Kline Harrison 

Lecturers Horace O. Kelly Jr., DeLeon E. Stokes, Olive S. Thomas, 

C. Michael Thompson 

Adjunct Instructor Helen Akinc 

Mission 

The mission of the School of Business and Accountancy is to provide students with 
an excellent business and professional accounting education within the framework 
of the liberal arts tradition of Wake Forest University. Our distinctiveness in the pursuit 
of this mission derives from the size, reputation, and location of the University; the 
primary emphasis upon undergraduate education within a separate undergraduate 
business school; and a business and accounting curriculum which stresses knowledge 
and skills in several fields blending with the extensive liberal arts curriculum of the 
University. 

In implementing this commitment to quality education, highly effective teaching 
is of paramount importance. Teaching is complemented by research which provides 
new perspectives to be shared by students and colleagues. 

The ultimate goal of the School is to graduate young men and women who are 
technically competent and who have the ability to assume managerial and leader- 
ship positions in business, government, and other organizations. 

Objectives 

The School of Business and Accountancy has four specific objectives: 

1. to offer sound academic programs in business and accountancy leading to 
the bachelor of science degree; 

2. to undertake on a continuous basis the professional development of its faculty; 

3. to serve the university community; and 

4. to maintain a productive association with the public, especially the business com- 
munity. 

Two programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree are offered. Stu- 
dents may choose a major in either business or accountancy. 

The primary goal of the business program is to provide a general study of busi- 
ness which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of un- 
derstanding of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed to 



194 



specialized, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest Univer- 
sity in light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The major goal of the accountancy program is to give students a thorough under- 
standing of accounting theory and methodology. Study of the basic functions in bus- 
iness operations is included in the curriculum. The role of the accountant in analyzing 
and controlling operations is considered. Contemporary issues in accounting prac- 
tice are discussed. 

Both the business and accountancy programs are accredited by the American As- 
sembly of Collegiate Schools of Business. 

Admission 

Admission to the School is by formal application, and applicants will be screened 
by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the School, the applicant 
first must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. Minimum requirements for 
admission to the School of Business and Accountancy are completion of sixty-five 
credits, a grade-point average of 2.2 on all courses attempted, and a minimum of 
a C grade in Accounting 111 and Accounting 112. Students who have not met fully 
the requirements in Accounting 111 and Accounting 112 may appeal to the School's 
Admission and Continuation Committee to be considered for admission to the School. 
Students are encouraged to have completed Economics 150 and Mathematics 108 
or 111 before admission to the School. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Therefore, the School 
reserves the right to grant or to deny admission or readmission to any student who 
meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the School of Business and 
Accountancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, requirements for 
which are discussed on page 44. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the School of Business 
and Accountancy will be taken in the School. For students wishing to transfer credit 
from other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that 
school may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the School of Business 
and Accountancy will not count necessarily towards the credits required in 
the School of Business and Accountancy. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the School 
of Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in accountancy, 
the minimum credits earned in this school must total fifty two. 



195 



Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 43-44, a student must be academi- 
cally responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the re- 
quirements for the degree. The administration of the School of Business and 
Accountancy will notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, 
after consultation with the Admission and Continuation, committee will decide if 
the student may continue as a major in this school. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of science degree 
with majors in accountancy and business. For the major in business, a student must 
complete the following course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 201, 203, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Speech 
151 or 153 or 155; and a minimum of three courses from Business 212, 213, 214, 215, 
222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 232, 233, 234, 237, 252, 290, 291, 292 or Accounting courses 
numbered 200 or above. One elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 
200 or above. 

For the major in accountancy, the following course work must be completed: 
Accounting 111, 112, 211, 212, 252, 253, 254, 261, 271, 272, and 273; Business 201, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and 
Speech 151 or 153 or 155. Requirements for the degree can be met in the normal 
four years with proper planning. Since this will require a heavy course load in the 
junior and senior years, students may find it advisable to attend a summer session 
to meet these requirements. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accoun- 
tancy must also meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits, including the basic and divisional requirements es- 
tablished by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses, 
exclusive of courses repeated with a C grade or better. 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and 3.3 on 
all work in business and accountancy are invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements speci- 
fied by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or 
"Honors in Accountancy." For additional information, interested students should 
consult a member of the faculty of the School of Business and Accountancy. 



196 



Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 

Membership in Beta Gamma Sigma is the highest national recognition a student 
can receive in an undergraduate program in accounting or business. To be eligible 
for membership, a student must rank in the upper 5 percent of the junior class or 
the upper 10 percent of the senior class. 



Courses of Instruction 

Business 

201. Business Statistics. (4) Techniques of analysis of numerical data, including 
descriptive statistics, probability theory, sampling theory, statistical inference, chi- 
square analysis, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation analysis. 

203. Quantitative Analysis. (4) Development and understanding of quantitative de- 
cision tools and models to be applied to the managerial decision process. Models 
include linear programming (graphic, algebraic, and simplex algorithm; sensitivity 
analysis; duality; transportation and assignment algorithm); decision theory; Markov 
analysis; and queuing. P— Business 201. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) The study of macro and micro organiza- 
tional design— structure, processes, development, climate, behavior, and performance 
evaluations. 

212. Human Resource Management. (4) The application of concepts from Business 
211 to human resource problems faced by general managers and their organizations. 
Activities include class discussions, case analyses, and projects. P— Business 211. 

213. Entrepreneurship. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of entrepreneurship. Students will study new 
business opportunities and will design a business plan for a new business start-up 
concept. Topics covered will include the entrepreneurship environment including 
entrepreneurial personalities, assessing new ventures including financial planning, 
sources of capital, managing entrepreneurial growth, marketing and marketing 
research, and legal issues of entrepreneurship. P— Business 211, 221, and 231. 

214. Labor Policy. (4) A study of selected topics in labor-management relations in 
both the business and the public sector from the view of labor, management, and 
the public. P— Business 211. 

215. International Comparative Management. (4) A seminar course which will 
broaden the student's knowledge of different management styles used in various 
countries such as Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and West 
Germany. The course will focus on (1) the complexities involved in operating in differ- 
ent cultures and (2) the implications which these cultural differences have on 
managing organizations and their employees' behavior in an international context. 
P-Bus. 211. 



197 



221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and 
the economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, 
institutions, and methods. P— Economics 150. 

222. Marketing Strategy. (4) Managerial techniques in planning and executing mar- 
keting programs in business and nonbusiness organizations. Emphasis is on the group 
experience in decision-making related to market segmentation, product innovation 
and positioning, channels of distribution, pricing, and promotion. Extensive use of 
cases, readings, and team presentations. P— Business 201 and 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign mar- 
keting operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P— 
Business 221 and senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodolo- 
gy and use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include 
research design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods 
of statistical data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. 
P— Business 201 and 221. 

225. Buyer Behavior. (4) Study of basic behavioral science applications in buyer moti- 
vation and behavior and in buying decisions. Emphasis on current research and the- 
ory relating to consumer behavior. P— Business 221. 

226. Retail Management. (4) This course is designed to acquaint the student with 
the scope, current trends and elements of retail management. Topics covered will 
include market structure of retailing, consumer behavior and retail strategy, changing 
retail institution types, merchandising strategies, basic financial tools essential to 
retail profitability and current research in retailing. P— Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including finan- 
cial management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. 
Emphasis is placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or 
non-profit organization. P— Accounting 112 and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied 
to the financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working 
capital decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P— Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, 
and corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental 
and technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection tech- 
niques, including portfolio considerations. P — Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (4) Analysis of the international aspects 
of managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors 
influencing capital acquisition and allocation. P— Business 231. 



198 



237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) A review of the 
basic principles of income, property, sales, and payroll-related taxes and an exami- 
nation of their impact on business and personal decisions. Introduction to tax return 
preparation and tax planning techniques. Not open to accounting majors; credit not 
granted for both Business 237 and Accounting 271. P— Accounting 112. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, 
and the methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, 
aggregate planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory 
management, facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P— Business 
201. 

251. Management Information Systems. (4) Study of the development, design, and 
implementation of management information systems with introduction to the ter- 
minology, concepts, and trends in computer hardware and software. 

252. Advanced Topics in Information Systems. (4) This course is designed to pro- 
vide students with a more in-depth understanding of the utilization of information 
technology for business applications with emphasis on decision support. Topics will 
include telecommunications technology, decision support systems/expert systems 
and management of the technology in an information systems context. International 
dimensions will be incorporated. P— Business 251. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put 
upon how the law develops and how economic, political, social, and ethical con- 
siderations influence this development. 

270. Business Law. (4) A study of the law applicable to business transactions with 
accounting and auditing implications. Open only to senior accounting majors. 
P— Business 261. 

271. Business Policy. (4) A study of strategic planning and implementation in busi- 
ness policy formulation. Emphasis is placed on case study analysis of domestic and 
international business situations. Methods of solution include basic principles of stra- 
tegic planning and the use of computer simulations. P— Business 211, 221, 231, and 
241. 

281. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of busi- 
ness. P— Permission of instructor. 

290. International Management Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students an opportunity to learn about management decisions and prac- 
tices in selected Pacific Rim countries. A guided tour of manufacturing plants and 
home offices of foreign companies and American companies with branches located 
in the Far East. Background readings and assignments are required prior to the trip, 
and a subsequent paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the tour 
also is expected. P— Business 211 and permission of instructor. Offered in the summer. 



199 



291. International Marketing Field Study. (4) An experiential learning journey to 
a foreign setting to conduct an in-depth study of marketing functions and practices. 
A guided tour of plants and offices of local and multinational companies will be 
provided in the selected foreign countries. Background readings and research are 
required prior to the class trip. An investigation designed by the student is carried 
out during the trip and an evaluative paper follows. P— Business 221 and permis- 
sion of instructor. Offered in the summer. 

292. International Finance Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students with an opportunity to learn about international financial institu- 
tions, policies, and practices in overseas financial centers. The students will visit 
international banks, as well as the multinational manufacturing firms with global 
financial operations. Background readings and assignments are required prior to the 
trip, and a subsequent paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the 
tour will also be required. P— Business 231 and permission of the instructor. Offered 
in the summer. 

Accountancy 

110. Introduction to Financial and Managerial Accounting. (4) Basic accounting 
concepts and procedures used in the preparation of financial reports issued to stock- 
holders, creditors, and managers of business enterprises. Open only to juniors and 
seniors not majoring in business or accountancy. Cannot be substituted for 
Accounting 111. 

111. Accounting Principles I. (4) The basic accounting process and underlying prin- 
ciples pertaining to the preparation and interpretation of published financial state- 
ments. Sophomore standing. 

112. Accounting Principles II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 111 and an introduc- 
tion to management accounting. P— Minimum of C in Accounting 111. 

211. Intermediate Accounting I. (4) A detailed analysis of theory and related problems 
for typical accounts in published financial statements. P— Minimum of C in Account- 
ing 112. 

212. Intermediate Accounting II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 211. P— Minimum 
of C in Accounting 211. 

252. Cost Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting, including 
budgeting, product-costing, cost allocation, standard costs, transfer-pricing, differen- 
tial analysis, and cost-behavior analysis. P— Minimum of C in Accounting 112. 

253. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems relating to the functions of purchasing, production, sales, and 
cash management. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. 
P— Accounting 252 and Business 251. 

254. Accounting in the Not-for-Profit Sector. (2) An examination of accounting the- 
ory and practice in governmental operations. P— Accounting 211. 



200 



261. Advanced Accounting Problems. (4) A study of the more complex problems 
found in business operations, business combinations, reorganizations, and dissolu- 
tion. P— Minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

271. Income Tax Accounting I. (4) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with individuals, partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Introduction to tax 
research and planning. P— Accounting 212. 

272. Income Tax Accounting II. (2) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with corporations; review of current changes in the federal income tax law. 
P— Accounting 271. 

273. Auditing. (4) Examination of basic auditing concepts and relationships, and the 
auditor's reporting and professional responsibilities. Study of auditing procedures 
commonly used in public accounting and internal auditing. P— Accounting 212 and 
Accounting 253. 

275. CPA Review- Accounting Practice and Theory. (4) An intensive study of CPA- 
type problems found on the accounting practice and accounting theory sections of 
the CPA exam. P— Accounting 252 and 261. 

278. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of 
accountancy. P— Permission of instructor. 




The rotunda in the Benson University Center 



201 

Overseas Courses 

WFU Courses Taught on Overseas Campuses 

DIJON, France Semesters Taught 

ART 2712. Studies in French Art (2) Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 

1987, 1986; 1985 

FRH 2232. Advanced Oral & Written French (4) Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 

1987, 1986, 1985 

FRH 2282. Contemporary France (4) Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 

1987, 1986, 1985 

FRH 2292. French Civilization (4) Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 

1987, 1986, 1985 

FRH 2742. Special Topics in French Literature (2) Fall: 1990 

FRH 2752. French Literature (2) Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 

1987, 1986, 1985 

HST 2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy (2) Fall: 1985 

LONDON, England 

ART 1030. Introduction to the Visual Arts, Fall: 1985 

The Collection of London (4) 
ART 2320. English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1986 

Fall: 1990, 1989, 1987, 
1986 
ART 2510. Women and Art (4) Fall: 1985 

ART 2940. Modern Architecture (4) Fall: 1985 

ECN 1500. Introduction to Economics (4) Fall: 1988 

ECN 2230. Financial Markets (4) Fall: 1988 

ECN 2710. Selected Areas in Economics (2,4) Fall: 1988 

ENG 3240. The Dramatic Literature and London Fall: 1986 

Theatre (4) 

ENG 3300. British Literature of the Eighteenth Fall: 1990 

Century (4) 

ENG 3630. Modern Traditions of English Poetry (4) Fall: 1986 

ENG 3700. The English Theatre 1660-1940 (4) ' Fall: 1985 

ENG 3800. Henry James in England (4) Fall: 1990 

HST 2260. History of London (2,4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1988, 

1987 
Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 
1986, 1985 



202 

HST 2270. The History of the English 

Aristocracy (2,4) 
HST 2370. Churchill (2,4) 



HST 3390. India in the English Mind (4) 

HST 3400. The Company as an Empire Builder (4) 

MIL 2510. Advanced Second Year I (2) 



MUS 1740. Music Theory IV (4) 
MUS 2090. History of Music in the British Isles (4) 
MUS 2160. History of Music in England (4) 
MUS 2170. English Musical Journalism (4) 

POL 2420. Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 



REL 2010. History of Christianity in England (4) 

REL 2020. British Theological and Literary 
Classics (4) 

SCT 2800. Topics: Wolcott & Tagore (2-4) 
SCT 3110. The English Theatre 1660-1940 (4) 



SCT 3310. Survey English Theatre History (4) 
SCT 3300. Modern English and Continental 

Drama (4) 
SCT 3700. The English Theatre 1660-1940 (4) 

SALAMANCA, Spain 

ART 2029. Spanish Art & Architecture (2,3,4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1987, 1986 

HST 2019. General History of Spain (4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1987, 1986 

SOC 2029. Social and Political Structures of Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

Present Day Spain (4) 1988, 1987, 1986 

SPA 1829. Introduction to Spain (2-4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1987, 1986 

SPA 2019. Intensive Spanish (2) Spring: 1989, 1987 

SPA 2029. Advanced Spanish (2,4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1987 



Fall 


1989 






Spring 


1990 






Fall 


1988, 
1985 


1987, 


1986, 


Spring 


1986 






Spring 


1986 






Spring 


1988 






Fall 


1987 






Spring 


1987 






Spring 


1989 






Spring 


1989, 


1987 




Spring 


1987 






Fall 


1988, 


1987 




Spring 


1987 






Spring 


1990 






Fall 


1987 






Spring 


1990 






Fall 


1987 






Spring 


1988 






Fall 


1989, 
1985 


1988, 


1987, 


Spring 


1989, 


1987, 


1986 


Spring 


1991, 


1988 




Spring 


1991, 


1988 




Spring 


1987 







203 



SPA 2059. History of the Spanish Language (4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1987, 1986 

SPA 2179. Intensive Spanish (2) Spring: 1986 

SPA 2239. Latin American Civilization (4) Spring: 1989 

SPA 2279. Survey of Spanish American Spring: 1986 

Literature (4) 

SPA 2419. Literature of the Golden Age I (4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989 

1988, 1987, 1986 

SPA 2649. Spanish American Short Story (4) Spring: 1989 

SPA 2739. 20th Century Spanish Novel (4) Spring: 1991, 1988, 1987 

SPA 2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature I (4) Spring: 1990 

TAIPEI, Taiwan 

ANT 3651. Cultural Ecology of China (4) Fall: 1989 

CHI 1131. Elementary Chinese (10) Fall: 1989 

CHI 1551. Pre-Advanced Intermediate Chinese (10) Fall: 1989 

HMN2431. China in Perspective (2) Fall: 1989 

VENICE, Italy 

ART 2693. Venetian Renaissance Art (4) Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989, 

1988, 1987, 1986 
Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988, 
1987, 1986 

CLA 2553. The World of Mythology in Spring: 1987 

Ovid's Metamorphoses (4) 

CLA 2713. The Roman Civilization of Ancient Spring: 1987 

Venetia (3) 

ENG 2133. Dante's Divine Comedy (2) Fall: 1986 

ENG 3613. The Italian Experience (4) Fall: 1990, 1988 

HON 1313. Approaches to Human Experience I (4) Spring: 1990 

HON 1353. Approaches to Human Experience (4) Fall: 1989 

HON 2433. Literature, Travel and Discovery (4) Spring: 1991 

HMN 2133. Studies in European Literature (4) Fall: 1987 

HMN 2203. Italy, Venice & Arts (4) Spring: 1986 

HMN 2603. Rom/Ital Forerunners: West Lit (4) Fall: 1990, 1988 

HST 2223. Renaissance and Reformation (4) Fall: 1989 

HST 2253. History of Venice (4) Fall: 1989 

HST 2263. Venetian Society & Culture (4) Fall: 1987 

HST 2273. Society & Politics in Italy Fall: 1986 
1943-1985 (2) 



204 



ITA 1533. Intermediate Italian (4) 

ITA 2153. Introduction to Italian Literature I (4) 

ITA 2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II (4) 

ITA 2213. Spoken Italian: Venice (4) 



MUS 2143. The Language of Music in Italy (4) 
MUS 2163. History of Italian Music (4) 

PHI 2853. Philosophy of Art (4) 

POL 1143. Intro, to Politics: Comparative (4) 
POL 2373. Comparative Public Policy in Selected 

Industrialized Democracies (4) 
POL 2423. Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Asia, Pacific Rim 

BUS 290. International Management Study Tour 
(4) (China, Japan, Hong Kong) 

EDU 272B. Geography Study Tour (4) 



Europe 

ANT 383. 
384. 

BUS 291. 



Field Research in Cultural Anthro- 
pology (4,3;4,3) (Highlands, Scotland) 

International Marketing Field Study (4) 
(Belgium, France, England, Luxem- 
bourg, Switzerland, West Germany) 



EDU 272 A. Geography Study Tour (4) 

FRH 181. Swiss French Civilization (4) 

FRH 185. Paris as Cultural Center of France (4) 

GER 160. German Language and Customs (4) 

MLS 484. The Oberammergau Passion Play 1990: 
A Study Tour (3) 



Spring: 1991, 1990 

Fall: 1990, 1989, 1988 
Spring: 1991, 1990, 1989 

Fall: 1990, 1989 
Spring: 1991, 1990 

Fall: 1989 
Spring: 1990, 1988, 1987, 
1986 

Fall: 1988, 1987, 1986 

Spring: 1991 
Spring: 1986 

Spring: 1990 

Spring: 1988 
Spring: 1989, 1988 

Spring: 1989, 1988 



Summer: 1989, 1988 



Summer: 1989, 1988, 1987 



Summer: 1990, 1989, 
1988 

Summer: 1990 



Summer: 1990, 1989, 1988, 
1987, 1986 

Summer: 1990, 1988, 1987, 

1986 
Summer: 1990, 1989 

Summer: 1990, 1989, 1985 

Summer: 1990 



205 



REL 218. Seminar in the Mediterranean 
World (4) 



Summer: 1990 



RUS 242. Research on Language and Culture 
HMN 242. in the Soviet Union (2) 

Summer Salamanca Program: 



SPA 221. 
SPA 224. 

Caribbean 



Conversation and Composition (4) 
Spanish Civilization (4) 



Spring: 1990, 1989, 1988 



Summer: 1987, 1986 
Summer: 1987, 1986 



Summer: 1990, 1988, 



ANT 381 A. Archeological Research (4,4) 

382A. (San Salvador, the Bahamas) 
ANT 383. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology Summer: 1987, 1986 

384. (4,4) (Saba Island, Windward Islands) 



• 




Casa Artom is a University-owned house in Venice, Italy, where undergraduates in overseas 
programs live and study for a semester. 



206 



Degrees Conferred 



May 21, 1990 
Bachelor of Arts 



Glenn Scott Adams 

Sondra Sue Ahlers 

Bruce LaGarde Allen, magna cum 

laude, with honors in economics 
Andrea Anders, cum laude, with 

honors in history 
Erik Thorsten Anderson 
Kimberly Lynn Anderson, cum laude, 

with honors in English 
Wendy Anne Anderson, cum laude, 

with honors in music 
Kirkland Blaine Andrews, cum laude 
Randall David Autrey 
Catherine Lee Averett, cum laude 
Catherine Kelly Baker, cum laude 
Kelly Matthews Baker, cum laude 
Robert Flowers Baker Jr. 
Montrose Rebecca Ballard 
Douglas James Balser 
Matthew Richard Banks, magna cum 

laude, with honors in politics 
Amy Jo Bannister 
Julie Ann Barger 
John Howland Barry 
Emily Jill Bartley, cum laude 
Pamela Joyce Basciani, cum laude 
James Doyle Batten Jr., magna cum 

laude 
Jennifer Lorraine Bauch 
Susan Alexandra Bausch 
Carol Lynn Beahan, cum laude 
Sharon Rose Beam 
Karla Leigh Bean 
Jane Page Beck 
John Lawrence Belford IV 
Margaret Page Benson, cum laude 
Diana Paige Bentley, cum laude 
Elizabeth Singleton Betts, cum laude 
David Lee Bigger 



Kathryn Gray Bilbro, magna cum 
laude, with honors in psychology 

Elizabeth Anne Bilyeu, cum laude, 
with honors in art 

William Graham Blair 

Carolyn Maureen Blake 

Emily Daye Blankenbeckler 

Steve Whitfield Blankenship, cum 
laude, with honors in speech 
communication and theatre arts 

Elizabeth Anne Blasko, cum laude 

Denise Louise Bolz 

Lisa Rae Bowen 

Trina Danette Boyce 

Joseph Lee Bracken 

James Christopher Bradley, magna 
cum laude 

Benton Sellers Bragg, cum laude 

Edward Carlton Branch III 

Charles Winston Brandon III 

Jonathan Edward Britt 

Gregory Alan Brondos Jr. 

James Monroe Brooks IV 

James Wesley Cooper Broughton 

Amy Jo Browder 

Kathryn Ray Brown, cum laude 

Robin Miquette Brown 

Sharon Sherae Brown 

Jennifer Jane Brunt, cum laude, with 
honors in art 

Dorothy Clement Bryan, cum laude 

Donna Carol Buckley, cum laude 

Mary Blake Bulla 

Daniel Sanford Bullard 

Pweebe Suzy Burch, cum laude 

Stephen Ray Burgess, cum laude 

Brian Francis Burke 

Sandra Deveise Burns 

Amy Elizabeth Burris, cum laude 

Mark Andrew Burroughs, cum laude 



207 



Alexandra Caroline Caldwell 
Catherine Virginia Calhoun 
Donna Lynn Canady, cum laude 
Raymond Douglas Cannata 
Catherine Krider Carlton, cum laude 
David Wayne Carlyle 
Christopher William Carmichael 
Spencer Matthew Carney 
Elizabeth L. Carter, cum laude 
Zachary James Cecil 
Bernard Hyunki Chang, summa cum 

laude 
Harriet Dana Chapman, cum laude 
Jeb Winn Chatham, cum laude 
Aaron Michael Christensen, magna 

cum laude 
Brent Joseph Ciatti 
Michael Porter Citrini 
Edwin Hemphill Clark, summa cum 

laude, with honors in English 
Rodney D. Clark, cum laude 
Stephen Patrick Clark, cum laude 
John Duff Cleland, cum laude 
Tamura Dawn Coffey, magna cum 

laude, with honors in history 
John Eric Coffman 
Mark Robert Coin 
Lawrence Craig Colbourne 
Marjorie Gillette Conner, cum laude 
Martha Constantino 
Mary Elizabeth Cooley, cum laude 
Clark Andrew Cooper, cum laude 
Duane Phillip Corle 
Vincent Keith Cornell 
Shelly Diane Crickette 
Michelle Lee Cromwell 
Virginia Lynn Cross 
Rebecca Russell Culberson 
Paul Everett Culpepper 
David Edward Cunha Jr. 
Laura Ann D'Alessandro, cum laude 
Pamela Joyce Dalzell 
Laura Elaine Daniel, cum laude 
Mary Ellen Daniels 
Nancy A. Daniels 
Christopher W. Dannahey 



Brook Marie Davis, cum laude 
Charles L. Davis 
Mahlon Lee Davis 
Scott Chapman Davis, cum laude 
Brian Christopher Day, cum laude 
Ann Elizabeth Denning, cum laude 
Ashley Stuart DeVane 
Thomas Richard DeVine Jr. 
John Francis Devonmille III 
Donna Carol Dimsdale, cum laude 
Joseph Louis DiVestea, magna cum 

laude 
Laura Elizabeth Doggett, magna cum 

laude 
Douglas Glenn Douds, cum laude 
J. Daniel Drayer, cum laude 
David Christopher Dresser 
Sara Elizabeth Drummond, cum laude 
James Lamont DuBose 
Grant David Duffield 
Susan Leigh Earle, cum laude, with 

honors in speech communication and 

theatre arts 
Melonee Maria Eatmon 
Margaret Louise Edington, cum laude 
Catherine Irene Eisenhower 
William Jeffrey Elias, magna cum 

laude 
Lisa Jo Engkvist 
Damian Christopher Evans, cum 

laude 
James Woody Faircloth 
Suzanne Elizabeth Faircloth, cum 

laude, with honors in speech commu- 
nication and theatre arts 
Diana Gayle Fisher 
Drew Jeffrey Flaim, cum laude 
Joseph Donald Floyd II 
Amy Lynn Ford, cum laude, with 

honors in psychology 
Collin Mark Ford 
Scott Andrew Forster, magna cum 

laude 
David Rodney Fox, cum laude 
James Davis Franklin Jr. 
Richard Scott Franklin 



208 



Sloane Frantz 

John Alderman Freeman III 

Kevin Friedel 

Derek Lance Furr, summa cum laude, 

with honors in English 
Robert Boylan Gaddy, cum laude 
David Wayne Gainey 
Vincent E. Gaver, cum laude 
Christopher Michael George, cum 

laude 
Kristin Leigh Gibson 
Nancy Lynn Gibson, cum laude 
Elizabeth Foust Glass 
William Brett Godwin 
Douglas Richard Goist 
Christopher Thomas Goode 
Jeffrey Edwin Goode 
Steven Russell Goodrich 
Gregory Cutler Goodstein, cum laude 
John Brooks Gray 
David Michael Greeley, cum laude 
Mark Andrew Greene 
Diana Carlin Gregory, magna cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Ann Thomas Griffin 
Eric Grady Griffin 
Christopher Lloyd Griffith, cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
John Richard Griffiths, summa cum 

laude 
Beatrice M. Guery 
Susan Eleanor Haase 
Michael Patrick Hall, cum laude 
William Richard Hall Jr., magna cum 

laude 
Borden Rhea Hallowes Jr. 
Brian Geoffrey Hamilton, cum laude 
Paul Everitt Hampton 
Joseph Paul Hanuscin Jr. 
Dewi John Hardman 
John Thomas Hargrove 
William Russell Harp 
Cammie Dawn Harris 
Jeff Todd Harris, summa cum laude 
Stephen Donnell Harris, cum laude 
John Michael Harrison 



Douglas MacDonald Hartman 
Judith Tamiko Hayashi 
Elizabeth Ann Hayes 
Daniel Bennett Hazzard 
Daniel Joseph Heck, summa cum 

laude, with honors in history 
John Henry Heckman 
Christopher Lee Helms 
Mary Katherine Hemstreet, cum laude 
David Alan Henning 
Lisa Alison Herring 
Kevin Cromley Hicks 
Kelly Ann Higgins 
Melissa Lynn Higgins, magna cum 

laude 
William Allen Hilberg, cum laude 
Amy Catherine Hinshaw, cum laude 
Mark Montgomery Hogewood, cum 

laude 
Rodney Lynn Hogue 
Shawn Emerson Hoshall 
Sean Douglas Houseal 
Stephen William Hudzik Jr. 
Justin Clark Huggins 
Elizabeth Brame Hunt, cum laude 
Jane Berkley Ingram, cum laude 
Peter Daniel Iovino 
Kimberly Jean Irvine 
Mark Joseph Jablonski, cum laude 
Elizabeth Broocks Jackson, cum laude 
Joseph Daniel Jackson 
Todd Alan Jemison 
Christopher Clifton Jenkins 
Antonio Johnson 
Jan Maria Johnson 
John David Johnson, cum laude 
Timothy Craig Johnson 
Lisa Karen Joines, cum laude 
Christopher Albert Jones 
Laura Leigh Jones 
Peter Hunting Jones 
Jonathan Christian Jordan, magna 

cum laude, with honors in economics 
Jeffrey Jowdy 
Theodore Lincoln Kachris 
Margaret L. Kaelin 



209 



Helen Josephine Kafer, cum laude 

Seth Louis Kahn 

Louis Edward Keiner, cum laude 

Thomas Sutton Kester Jr. 

Tammy Lynn Kidd 

Adrian Michael Kindel 

Ralph Marsden Kitley II 

David Robert Klopfenstein, cum laude 

Laura Faye Klutz 

Susan Elizabeth Knight 

Cynthia Anne Kodak 

Isabelle Maja Kohler, magna cum 

laude 
Robert A. Krai Jr. 
Allison Ann Kratt 
Beth Ann Kurowski, cum laude 
Katherine Rowe Lambert, cum laude 
Julie Lynn Landel, magna cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Justin Baker Latus, summa cum laude, 

with honors in history 
Joseph Rogers Lawson III 
Elizabeth Lightfoot Lee, cum laude 
Michael Alan Lendach 
Angela Dawn Lewellyn, cum laude, 

with honors in sociology 
Peter Blair Lindeman 
Marian Diane Linder, cum laude 
Stephen Bentley Lindsley 
Robert Earl Lockhart Jr., cum laude 
Jon Scott Logel, cum laude 
Gregg Anthony Lombardo 
Catherine Leigh Long, cum laude 
Dean Albert Lord 
Melissa Lois Lott, cum laude 
Christopher Terry Lovelace 
Mary Cabell Lowe 
Terry L. Ludwig 
James Douglas Macdonald 
Kelly Anne Maher 
Elizabeth Paige Mahoney, magna cum 

laude 
John Irvin Malone 
Franklin Whitehead Margiotta 
Kimberly Lisa Marshall, cum laude 
Christopher Harry Martin 



Geisla Nicole Martin, cum laude, with 

honors in -psychology 
John Kenneth Martin 
Karen Sue Martin, magna cum laude 
David Christopher Martino, cum 

laude 
Leonard Earl Mattiace 
Laura Anne Maurer 
Julie Elise McClung 
Mark Alan McCollam, cum laude 
Elizabeth Edwards McConnell 
Timothy Matthew McConnell 
Michelle Leigh McDevitt 
Todd Eugene McDonald 
William Scott McDonough, cum laude 
Brian Judd McGinn 
Charles William McHan Jr. 
Katheryn Jane McKinney 
Douglas Lloyd McKnight 
Greg R. McKnight, cum laude 
Eric Walton McNulty 
Robert Charles McOuat 
Elizabeth Anne McPherson 
Steven Brent McRae 
Timothy Moris McSwain 
Alyssa McVeigh 
Andrew Kent McVey, summa cum 

laude 
Waverly Anne McWhorter 
Anna Nabb Meade, cum laude 
Steven Eugene Meeker 
Heidi Ann Meertz 
Laura Jackson Merrell 
William Todd Middleton 
Frederick Charles Mileham 
Jane Elisabeth Mills 
Scott Kent Monroe 
Matthew Carl Moore 
Vicki Marie Moorefield 
Alice Catherine Moran 
Mary Kimberly Morgan, magna cum 

laude 
Noelle Elizabeth Morgan, cum laude 
Tony Keith Mosley 
Donald S. Mueh 



210 



Sandra Ann Muhlenbeck, magna cum 

laude, with honors in politics 
Julie Ann Mullen, magna cum laude 
Marnie Melissa Mullen, cum laude 
Rodney Douglas Mullins 
Melissa Suzanne Mulock 
Kathleen Carol Murphy 
Grace Elizabeth Murray, magna cum 

laude 
Karen Bernetta Musgrave 
Elizabeth Anne Myrick, cum laude 
Douglas Matthew Nally 
Emily Ann Nance, cum laude 
Wendy Paige Neel 
Douglas Burton Neely 
Charles Edward Newcomb 
Jolain Nicole Nill, cum laude 
John Byrd Norris V 
Andrew Joseph Novak, cum laude 
Laura Elizabeth Olech, cum laude 
Katherine Parker Owen, cum laude 
Andrew Charles Packard 
Christine Patricia Pallace, cum laude 
Lisa Eileen Pamintuan 
Kimberly Marie Parker 
Michael Richard Parker 
Lisa Noelle Parr, cum laude, with 

honors in English 
Anne Marie Partin 
Laura Marlene Patrick, cum laude 
Kimberly J. Patterson 
Rachel Eleese Pearce, magna cum 

laude 
Michelle Anne Pelstring 
John Shelton Penton Jr. 
Elizabeth Ellen Perkins, cum laude 
Eustacia Vye Peterson, summa cum 

laude 
Marco Penseroso Pickett 
Kevin John Piatt, summa cum laude, 

with honors in physics 
Joseph Frank Polite Jr. 
Paul Jay Pontrelli, summa cum laude 
Eva Margaret Powell, cum laude, with 

honors in psychology 
Alan Scott Pringle, magna cum laude 



Richard Scott Proehl 

Ernest L. Purnsley Jr. 

Robin Ann Putnam 

Devra Lynn Rafeld, cum laude 

Janet Louise Ramey, magna cum 

laude, with honors in English 
William K. Ramsey 
Matthew James Rave, magna cum 

laude 
Micah David Ray, cum laude 
Carolyn Ann Reaves 
Leah Caroline Redwine, cum laude 
John Grady Reeves 
June Kay Reeves 
Carrie Linda Reigelman 
Scott William Reiter 
Cason Lynley Rent, cum laude 
Patrick James Rice Jr. 
Christine Marie Riddle 
Virginia Holmes Roberts 
Sharon McNeill Rogers 
Karen Marie Rolando 
Alexandra Jeanne Rooks 
Rayne Roper, cum laude 
Thomas Paul Rorke 
Mark William Rowe, magna cum laude 
Robert Grenfell Rowe 
John S. Sahakian 
Robert Jefferson Salisbury 
David Harrold Sampsell, summa cum 

laude 
Candace LaVita Sarter 
Amy Lynn Schirmer, magna cum 

laude 
Patricia Allene Schnably 
Clay Christopher Schuett, cum laude 
Lyle Alva Scruggs, magna cum laude 
Elizabeth Vernon Scull 
William Carhart Sendell IV 
Elizabeth Johanne Senter 
Noel Blaine Shepherd 
James Kevin Sherwood 
Jun Shimoyamada, cum laude 
Christiane Denyse Shipley, magna 

cum laude 
Carol Emilee Shoemake 



211 



Theresa Ives Shuping, cum laude, 

with honors in politics 
Amy Elizabeth Sikes 
Eric Matthew Siles, cum laude 
Amy Lynn Simmons, summa cum 

laude 
John V. Sinclair 
Julie Annette Sipe, cum laude, with 

honors in speech communication and 

theatre arts 
Sara Randall Sitton, cum laude 
James Robert Slate Jr. 
Andrew Christian Smith, magna cum 

laude 
Christophe Bernard Smith 
Emily Elizabeth Smith, cum laude 
James McCall Smith, summa cum 

laude 
Margaret Lynn Smith, cum laude 
Spencer Anders Smith, cum laude 
Stacy Lauren Smithers 
Karen Lynn Stalnaker 
Max Howell Staples III 
Russell Lee Stephenson III 
Leif Erik Sternung 

John G. Stevenson, summa cum laude 
Robert Charles Stewart 
John Headley Strong, cum laude 
John Mark Swintek 
Stacy Joel Tardiff, cum laude 
Ronald Jack Taylor Jr. 
Carol Denise Teague, cum laude 
Jessica Colleen Tefft 
Janice Lynne Templeton, magna cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Kristin I. Terchek, magna cum laude 
Lynne Pamela Tescione 
Scott Randall Tester 



Candace Dawn Thomsen 
Edward Lawrence Timanus, cum 

laude 
Wendy Renee Tucker, cum laude 
Lela Riis Usry 
Marvin Kelly Vaughan 
Sharon Marie Vaughan 
Melissa Anne Venable 
Rodney Stephen Vorkapich 
Jean Allison Walker 
Renee Walker 

Lisa Margaret Wallace, cum laude 
Stephanie Lynn Ward 
Catherine Lynn Warren 
Timothy Dale Welborn, cum laude 
Debra Ann Wertz, cum laude 
Andrew Glenn West 
Jennifer May Whicker 
John Wesley White III 
Laura Ashley White 
William Milton White Jr. 
Joseph Paul Whittington, cum laude 
Amanda Katherine Williams, summa 

cum laude 
Joseph Howard Williams 
Christopher Thomas Wilson 
Martha Jane Wilson, cum laude 
Robert John Wilson II 
Yvette LaVerne Wilson 
Hubert David Womack, cum laude 
Ruth Ann Wootton, cum laude 
Elizabeth Treanor Wright, cum laude 
Jeanne Marie Wussler 
Christopher Briggs Young, cum laude 
David Barden Young 
Lisa Michele Young, cum laude 
Timothy Justin Young 
Karin Lorene Zipf 



May 21, 1990 
Bachelor of Science 



Carolyn Marie Aebischer, magna cum 
laude 



Allen Shade Aldridge, magna cum laude 
Peter Geoffrey Alexander 



212 



Shawn Raynard Alexander 
John Howard Andersen 
Emily Lawson Anderson, cum laude 
James Keister Andrews, magna cum 

laude 
Robin Michelle Bartusiak 
Charles Frederick Bauer 
Elizabeth Ann Becker 
John Allen Belot Jr. 
John Gregory Francis Bonar, cum 

laude 
Bryan Elwood Boone 
Robert Harville Boyles Jr., cum laude 
Christopher Holloway Bozarth 
Lee Brian Brandt Jr. 
Stuart Alan Brock, cum laude 
Susanne E. Brock 
Richard Franklin Brooks, cum laude 
Thomas Edward Buchheit, summa 

cum laude, with honors in biology 
Robert Tilden Burrus Jr., cum laude 
Leslie Ryan Campbell 
R. Douglas Chatham, summa cum 

laude, with honors in mathematics 
Anthony Darnell Chavis 
Carter John Herring Childs, cum 

laude 
Christopher Carter Clanton 
Michelle Anne Clark, cum laude, with 

honors in biology 
James David Cobb III 
Susan Crisp, magna cum laude 
Kevin William Daly 
Jon Pilkenton Davis 
Martha Susan Davis 
Scott de Marchi, cum laude, with 

honors in history 
Elisa Michelle Dew 
Kevin Lee Dopke 
Susan Louise Edison, cum laude 
Sherese Carol Edwards, cum laude 
Suzanne Elliott, magna cum laude 
Oliver Peter Favalli, cum laude 
John Joseph Froio 
Cammie J. Fulp 
Kathy Jo Gale 



Jesus Ignacio Grave de Peralta 
Julie Beth Garrison Griffin 
John Alexander Grimes III 
Ray Morris Gurganus, cum laude 
Robert Douglas Habgood, summa 

cum laude 
Robert Davidson Hall III, cum laude 
H. Lee Harrell 
Sara Elizabeth Hart 
Alice Michel Hawthorne, cum laude 
Janet Kimiko Hayashi, magna cum 

laude, with honors in computer 

science 
Todd Charles Henninger, magna cum 

laude 
Jeffrey Warren Hinshaw 
Stephen Allen Holeman, cum laude 
Timothy David Howard, cum laude 
Stephen Michael Hoy 
Suzonne Denise Ijames 
Carl Gustav Johnson 
Christopher Keith Jones, magna cum 

laude 
Eric Richard Kardovich 
Gregory Alexander Kares 
Alan Scott Keller 
Kathryn Lyn Kelley 
William Thomas Kendrick 
Lori Kay Krautter 
Allyson Kay Kurzmann, cum laude 
Steven Cole Larsen, cum laude 
Nancy Kay Leist, magna cum laude 
Christopher Robert Lenz 
Robert Keller Leonard Jr. 
Andrew Paul Lepp, cum laude 
Heather Lee Lifsey 
Thomas Drumwright Long Jr., cum 

laude 
Latonja Euniece Mack 
Brian Patrick Mason, cum laude 
Robert Baxter Meek III, cum laude 
Richard Scott Messenkopf, cum laude 
Michael H. Monroe, magna cum laude 
Jill S. Montgomery 
Kimberly Ann Morris, magna cum 

laude 



213 



Kimberly Clara Morris 

Scott Porter Morrison 

Phillip Ray Morrow Jr., cum laude 

John Clark Munn III 

Phillip Todd Nichols, cum laude 

Peter John Nielsen 

Donald Alwin Nisbett Jr., cum laude 

Bruce Allan O'Rourke 

Catherine Fay Owens, cum laude, 

with honors in chemistry 
Jason Micheal Papes 
Elise Judith Person, magna cum laude 
Anthony Joseph Piechnik Jr., cum 

laude 
Lara Junine Pons 
Prabhu Potluri, cum laude 
Kimberly Renee Powell, cum laude, 

with honors in chemistry 
Richard Byron Rhodes, cum laude 
Gregory Scott Robins 
Emily Ann Rowland, cum laude 
Kathryn Sansom 
Joseba M. Sarriegui 
Anne Bothwell Schiller, cum laude 



Robert Michael Sebek, cum laude 

Troy Stark Seskey 

Susannah Elizabeth Sharpe, cum 

laude 
James Harrison Shepherd, cum laude 
Rushani Maria Sie 
Steven Thomas Soule 
Todd Franklin Spencer 
William Kenneth Stanton 
Robert Morris Treadway Jr., cum 

laude 
Dorris Devereau Tucker 
Robert Hunter Tuttle, cum laude 
Kristina Lysell Vega, magna cum laude 
James Voorhees 
Christopher Robert Wakefield, cum 

laude 
Deborah Ann Waldron, magna cum 

laude 
Virginia Wooten Ward, cum laude 
Catherine Lynn Wille 
Jon Jay Wilson, cum laude 
Miles Thomas Wright 
Gerald Vincent Yuille 



May 21, 1990 

Bachelor of Science 
The School of Business and Accountancy 



Jonathon William Albright, cum laude 

Carter Graves Allen 

James Kelly Ardrey Jr. 

Audra Marie Baker 

Louis Kenneth Beasley III, cum laude 

Donald Lewis Bobbitt Jr. 

Charles Wendell Boyer 

John William Brown 

Steven Kirk Burton 

Alison Campbell 

William Bradley Chastain 



Michael William Christman, cum 

laude 
John Thomas Church 
Nicholas Paul Cianciosi, cum laude 
Virginia Lee Close 
Dana Susanna Conner 
Gregory Anderson Cox 
Eric Pickard Credle, cum laude 
Patrick Kenney Daley 
Leslie Anne Daves 
Geraint Edward Davies 



214 



Starr May Davis 

Denise Suzanne Deffinbaugh 

Drew Matthew Dixon, cum laude 

Chad Wendell Emerine 

James Arthur Fagan Jr. 

Peter Joseph Fedyszen 

Deborah Ann Flack, magna cum laude 

John Robert Flowers Jr. 

Stephanie Renae Fulbright, cum laude 

Timothy Corbett Fulton 

Edmund Bryan Garris 

Robin Elizabeth Giles 

Geoffrey Cecil Gwin 

Gregory Russell Hackworth, cum 

laude 
Jeffrey Raymond Haden, cum laude 
David Spencer Hall 
Mary Anna Hall, magna cum laude 
Dennis Patrick Halligan 
Paul Bryan Hamlin 
Mark Christopher Hanna 
Weathers Bogard Hardwick 
Blair Jordan Harris 
Craig Christian Harris, cum laude 
Doron Hartal 
DeDe Lynn Harvey 
David Stuart Hawkins, cum laude 
Kerry Beth Hayes 
John Patrick Heafner 
Jeffrey Paul Henderson, cum laude 
John Sydney Henderson Jr. 
Liesl Ann Henderson 
David Richard Herrman 
Steven Rawles Holland 
Susan Beth Hollingsworth 
Drayton Robinson Honeycutt 
Todd James Hooper, cum laude 
Meta Joette Horton 
Laura Catherine Hudak 
Kathleen Michelle Huggins 
Richard Russell Isaak, cum laude 
Cynthia Ann Johnson 
Scott Eliot Johnson 
Merrill Glenn Jones II 
Reginald Haywood Jones Jr. 
Thomas Eldredge Jones 



Michael John Jordan, magna cum 

laude 
David Sykes Kelly, magna cum laude 
Douglas Kingsland Kollme 
Cathi Dawn Lambe, cum laude 
Richard Joseph Lane, cum laude 
James Ronald Lanes 
Jeffrey Charles Leary 
Todd Robert Leistner 
Patrick Michael Lemons 
Liv Noelle Lundin, cum laude 
Sheila Joan Mahony, cum laude 
William Johnson Marklin III 
Katherine Lee Mason, cum laude 
Richard Frederick Mayer, cum laude 
Jennifer Anne McCarley, cum laude 
Kyle McFadden, cum laude 
Sally Hare McNeer, cum laude 
Anne Kathryn Miller 
Richard Alexander Miller Jr. 
Gregory Scott Munn 
Dawn Tracy Murphy 
James Michael Muscatello 
Albert Gallatin Myers IV 
Diana Marie Nappi 
Diane Elizabeth Nelson, cum laude 
Kurt Andrew Nelson 
Timothy Charles Novak 
John William O'Connor, cum laude 
Hillary Erin O'Neil, cum laude 
Paul Joseph Osowski 
William Francis Ostmann 
Christopher Wilson Pearson, cum 

laude 
Sean Patrick Pflaging 
Jesse Patrick Phifer III 
Shawn Lynne Reed, cum laude 
Stephen Todd Renner 
Sandra Lynette Rich 
Craig Evan Ritchie, cum laude 
Brian Patrick Roper 
Christopher Gerard Rose 
William Sharp Rymer 
Robert Allen Sar 
Susan Lee Satterwhite 



215 



Michael Stephen Schaal, magna cum 

laude 
Richard Dean Schroeder, magna cum 

laude 
Thomas Wingate Sims 
Donna Jean Sizemore 
John Vernon Skinner III 
Jennifer Lynn Smith 
Charles Everett Solomon 
Eric Robert Sorensen, cum laude 
Jennifer Joan Sorensen, cum laude 
Carol Adele Spann 
Robert Britt Startsman 
James Everette Stoner III 
Mark Henry Tabish 



Stefanie Lara Tate, cum laude 

Eric Scott Thompson 

Felecia Michelle Thompson 

William Henry Trippett 

Lynn Weaver Tutterow, summa cum 

laude 
Jacob P. Valashinas 
Jeffrey William Vandiver 
David Kirkland White 
Richard Fox White III 
Gregg Alan Williamson, cum laude 
John Fletcher Wilson IV 
Christine Elizabeth Winfree 
Felix JungHung Wong, cum laude 
Elizabeth Ashby Young 



August 10, 1990 
Bachelor of Arts 



Ainuddin Ahmed 
Anna Lynn Avery 
Martin Earl Bailey III 
Patricia Lynn Bell, cum laude 
Laurie Lee Budd 
Thomas Dulaney Bullock 
Jay Roderick Bunton 
Preston Scott Cecil 
Justin Chapman 
Edward Lewis Clayton III 
Jackie Eugene Copeland 
Bernard Hayden Dempsey III 
Alan Wellford Dillon, cum laude 
Andrew Herbut Foulkrod 
Ralph Anthony Godic 
John Walter Inman 
Rosemary Leona Ireland 
Jeffrey J. Lamb 



Katherine Louise Malone 
Alan Scott Marra 
Christopher C. McCotter 
Stephen Frederick Miller 
Jonathan O'Beirne Milner 
Stephen Pressley Mitchem 
John Joseph Nieters 
John Matthew Odom, summa cum 

laude 
David Cameron Rose Jr. 
Janie M. Ruiz 
Terry Allen Smith 
Phillip Buchanan Storm Jr., summa 

cum laude 
Terrae Diana Terry 
Stephen Biggs Thomas 
Tamara Lynn Williams, cum laude 



216 



August 10, 1990 
Bachelor of Science 



Stacey Lynn Butler, magna cum laude 

Glen Thomas Casto 

Alan Keith Chastain 

Jessica Ann Fleming, cum laude 



Jonathan Emery Hume 

Kevin J. Kargman 

Carra Lee Koonce, cum laude 

Robert Bruce Neighbors, cum laude 



August 10, 1990 
Bachelor of Science 

The School of Business and Accountancy 



Tonya Lynnette Adams 
Paul Lamar Baker 
Eric Thomas Dusch 
Michael Shawn Farley 
Jody Murray Grissom 



Marcus Blair Holcomb 
Francis Robertson Her III 
William Emanuel Jones 
Christopher L. Krukewitt 
John Newman Linton 



December 18, 1990 
Bachelor of Arts 



Louis Altobelli III 

Gilles A. Ameline 

Dale Linn Backus 

Paul Joseph Barkocy 

Angela Celeste Burleson, cum laude 

Christina Marie Carter 

Virgilia Leggett Church, cum laude 

Bryan McKee Cisne 

Cara Lee Delpino 

Tudor Aurel Dragulescu 

Stephen Bryan Durham, cum laude 

Melissa Anne Frey 

Anne Marie Goslak 

Lisa Dare Grant, cum laude 

Christopher John Griggs 

Jane Tuke Hellewell 

William Charles Holsworth IV 

Laura Lee Hooper, cum laude 



John Stewart Hyatt 

Cynthia Ellen Jones 

Robert M. Linz, cum laude 

Karen Lise Lundeen 

James W. Mangels 

John Higgins Martin Jr. 

Cheryl Dawn Medford 

Timothy Ogdin Miller 

Matthew John Padberg, magna cum 

laude 
Robert George Pullen 
Stephen Paul Quarles 
George Leslie Reasner 
Tony Rogers 
Frederick Clarence Schmidt, cum 

laude 
Steven Kent Shortz 
Michael David Smith 



217 



Richard Scott Smitherman Douglas Harward Van Lare 

Larry Wayne Tearry Joel David Vann 

Elizabeth Marion Thomas, Bradley Lewis Weaver, cum laude 
cum laude 



December 18, 1990 
Bachelor of Science 

Warren Elliott Belin, cum laude William Todd Johnston, summa cum 

Albert Livingston Bridger laude 

Marc Francis Capizzi Emily Maria Rountree, cum laude 

Amy E. Feierstein Michael Leon Smith 

Kathleen Norah Halnon, cum laude 



December 18, 1990 

Bachelor of Science 
The School of Business and Accountancy 



Stephen Andrew Carson Archie Lee Meyers III 

Doreen Renee Cooke Scott Coleman Miller 

John Crisconi Darnall Jr. Michael Scott White, magna cum 

Joseph A. Ellison laude 

Lewis Lyon Gentry 



1990 Reserve Officers' Training Corps Graduates 
Commissioned in the United States Army Reserve 

Tonya L. Adams Michael P. Hall 

Robin M. Bartusiak John W. Inman 

Karla L. Bean Jon S. Logel 

Christopher H. Bozarth Melissa L. Lott 

Glen T. Casto Frederick C. Schmidt 

Preston S. Cecil Clay C. Schuett 

Shelly D. Crickette* Melissa A. Venable 

Michael S. Farley Jon J. Wilson 

*Distinguished Military Graduate 



218 



Honor Societies 



Mortar Board 

Members of the Class of 1990 



Harriet Dana Chapman 
Michelle Anne Clark 
Joseph Louis DiVestea 
William Richard Hall Jr. 
Alice Michel Hawthorne 
Melissa Lois Lott 
Sheila Joan Mahony 
Marnie Melissa Mullen 



Elise Judith Person 
Shawn Lynne Reed 
Emily Ann Rowland 
Susannah Elizabeth Sharpe 
Christiane Denyse Shipley 
Carol Denise Teague 
Timothy Dale Welborn 



Omicron Delta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1990 



Tonya Lynette Adams 
Matthew Richard Banks 
Pamela Joyce Basciani 
Thomas Edward Buchheit 
Harriet Dana Chapman 
Aaron Michael Christensen 
Edwin Hemphill Clark 
Michelle Anne Clark 
Susan Crisp 
Brook Marie Davis 
Drew Matthew Dixon 
Douglas Douds 
Susan Leigh Earle 
Margaret Louise Edington 
Deborah Ann Flack 
Derek Lance Furr 
Vincent Eugene Gaver 
Ray Morris Gurganus 
Alice Michel Hawthorne 
Mark Montgomery Hogewood 
William Todd Johnston 



Jonathan Christian Jordan 
Michael John Jordan 
Allyson Kay Kurzmann 
Julie Lynn Landel 
Justin Baker Latus 
Nancy Kay Leist 
Melissa Lois Lott 
Karen Sue Martin 
Donald Alwin Nisbett Jr. 
Lisa Noelle Parr 
Eustacia Vye Peterson 
Alan Scott Pringle 
Janet Louise Ramey 
Emily Ann Rowland 
Christiane Denyse Shipley 
James McCall Smith 
Carol Adele Spann 
Carol Denise Teague 
Marybeth Tally Torbet 
Andrew Glenn West 
Christopher Briggs Young 



219 



Phi Beta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1990 



Allen Shade Aldridge 
James Keister Andrews 
Matthew Richard Banks 
James Doyle Batten Jr. 
Kathryn Gray Bilbro 
Catherine Marie Booth 
James Christopher Bradley 
Thomas Edward Buchheit 
Bernard Hyunki Chang 
Richard Douglas Chatham 
Aaron Michael Christensen 
Edwin Hemphill Clark 
Tamura Dawn Coffey 
Susan Crisp 
Joseph Louis DiVestea 
Drew Matthew Dixon 
William Jeffrey Elias 
Suzanne Elliott 
Emily Catherine Evans 
Scott Andrew Forster 
Derek Lance Furr 
James MacKenzie Garvey 
John Richard Griffiths 
Diana Carlin Gregory 
William Richard Hall Jr. 
Jeff Todd Harris 
Janet Kimiko Hayashi 
Daniel Joseph Heck 
Todd Charles Henninger 
Melissa Lynn Higgins 
Jonathan Christian Jordan 
Michael John Jordan 
David Sykes Kelly 
Isabelle Maja Kohler 
Julie Lynn Landel 



Justin Baker Latus 
Nancy Kay Leist 
Elizabeth Paige Mahoney 
Karen Sue Martin 
Andrew Kent McVey 
Michael Hanson Monroe 
Mary Kimberly Morgan 
Kimberly Ann Morris 
Sandra Ann Muhlenbeck 
Julie Ann Mullen 
Grace Elizabeth Murray 
John Matthew Odom 
Rachel Eleese Pearce 
Elise Judith Person 
Eustacia Vye Peterson 
Kevin John Piatt 
Alan Scott Pringle 
Paul Jay Pontrelli 
Janet Louise Ramey 
Matthew James Rave 
Michael Stephen Schaal 
Amy Lynn Schirmer 
Richard Dean Schroeder 
Lyle Alva Scruggs 
Amy Lynn Simmons 
Andrew Christian Smith 
James McCall Smith 
John Gregory Stevenson 
Phillip Buchanan Storm 
Janice Lynne Templeton 
Kristin Irene Terchek 
Lynn Weaver Tutterow 
Krishna Lysell Vega 
Deborah Anne Waldron 
Amanda Katherine Williams 



220 



Enrollment 



Fall 1990 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Seniors 

Juniors 

Sophomores 

Freshmen 

Unclassified 

Total Undergraduate 



The Graduate School 

(Reynolda Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 

The Graduate School 

(Hawthorne Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 

Total Graduate 

The School of Law 

The Babcock Graduate 
School of Management 

Resident Program 
Executive Program 
Evening Program 

Total 

The Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine 

Allied Health Programs 

Total 

Total Professional Schools 



Men 

443 
478 
469 
488 
29 

1,907 



103 
20 

33 

156 



246 



337 



Women 



216 



215 



114 



Total 



355 


798 


391 


869 


419 


888 


436 


924 


32 


61 


1,633 


3,540 


152 


255 


7 


27 


57 


90 



372 



1 


4 


5 


42 


46 


88 


1 


4 


5 


44 


54 


98 


204 


266 


470 



461 



171 


60 


231 


46 


7 


53 


120 


47 


167 



451 



289 
40 


150 

76 


439 
116 


329 
912 


226 
555 


555 
1,467 



University Total 



3,019 



2,458 



5,477 



221 



Geographic Distribution — Undergraduates 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Texas 



Men 


Women 


Total 


15 


15 


30 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 


1 


4 


12 


6 


18 


1 


3 


4 


37 


24 


61 


12 


14 


26 


6 


3 


9 


128 


94 


222 


151 


114 


265 


1 





1 


32 


18 


50 


8 


14 


22 


2 


3 


5 


2 





2 


29 


18 


47 


7 


8 


15 


7 


1 


8 


72 


84 


156 


35 


14 


49 


8 


7 


15 


5 


3 


8 


3 


5 


8 


10 


6 


16 


1 





1 


2 





2 


3 


5 


8 


91 


64 


155 


1 





1 


64 


44 


108 


657 


667 


1,324 


1 


1 


2 


40 


27 


67 


5 


3 


8 





1 


1 


82 


39 


121 


3 


4 


7 


78 


71 


149 


50 


51 


101 





1 


1 


2 


4 


6 


128 


120 


248 


27 


18 


45 



222 



Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming 



Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Canada 

Chili 

China 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

France 

West Germany 

Greece 

Guyana 

India 

Ireland 

Italy 

Jamaica 

Japan 

Kenya 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Pakistan 

Panama 

Saudia Arabia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Tanzania 

United Kingdom 

USSR 



Other Countries 



4 


2 


6 


31 


24 


55 


6 


5 


11 


1 





1 


ies 

Men 


Women 


Total 





1 


1 


1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


5 


1 


1 


2 


4 


4 


8 


1 





1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 





1 





1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 





1 





1 


1 


1 





1 


4 


2 


6 





2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


1 


4 


1 





1 


3 





3 


3 





3 


1 





1 


1 





1 


6 


1 


7 





1 


1 



223 



The Board of Trustees 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1991 



Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh 
Herbert Brenner, Winston-Salem 
C. C. Cameron, Charlotte 
Richard C. Day, Raleigh 
Ronald E. Deal, Hickory 



George B. Mast, Smithfield 
L. Glenn Orr Jr., Lumberton 
Allison K. Overbay, Waynesville (student) 
Arnold D. Palmer, Orlando, FL 
Bob D. Shepherd, Morganton 



Frank B. Wyatt, High Point 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1992 



Louise Broyhill, Raleigh 

Paul H. Broyhill, Lenoir 

Victor I. How Jr., Winston-Salem 

Marvin D. Gentry, King 

Constance F Gray, Winston-Salem 



William B. Greene Jr., Gray, TN 
Roberto J. Hunter, Scarsdale, NY 
Jeanette W Hyde, Raleigh 
Louis B. Meyer, Wilson 
Duncan J. Sinclair Jr., Laurinburg 




224 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 



D. Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT 
C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte 
James B. Hunt Jr., Raleigh 
James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 
Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 



Barbara B. Millhouse, Winston-Salem 
Michael G. Queen, Wilmington 
Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 
Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 
J. Tylee Wilson, Jacksonville, FL 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1994 



Murray C. Greason Jr., Winston-Salem 
Deborah S. Harris, Charlotte 
Harvey R. Holding, Atlanta, GA 
Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem 
James W. Johnston, Winston-Salem 



Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro 

John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem 

Frances P. Pugh, Raleigh 

William B. Sansom, Knoxville, TN 

K. Wayne Smith, Dublin, OH 



Life Trustees 



Bert Bennett, Winston-Salem 
Joseph Branch, Raleigh* 
Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh 
Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem 
Charles W Cheek, Greensboro 
Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem 
Floyd Fletcher, Durham 
John C. Hamrick Sr., Shelby 



Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem 

J. Samuel Holbrook, Southern Pines 

Lex Marsh, Charlotte 

James W Mason, Laurinburg 

W. Boyd Owen, Waynesville 

George W Paschal Jr., Raleigh 

J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 

Samuel C. Tatum, Greensboro 

T. Eugene Worrell, Charlottesville, VA 



J. Smith Young, Lexington 
*Died on February 18, 1991 

Officers 

(For one-year terms beginning January 1, 1991) 

D. Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT, Chairman 

C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte, Vice-Chairman 

Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Secretary 

John G. Williard, Winston-Salem, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

Carlos O Holder, Clemmons, Assistant Treasurer 



225 



The Board of Visitors 



Arnold Palmer, Latrobe, Pennsylvania 
Chairman, University Board of Visitors 

Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, Florida 
Chairman, College Board of Visitors 



Wake Forest College and Graduate School 
Terms Expiring December 31, 1991 



Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem 
John W. Chandler, Washington, DC 
Laura M. Elliott, Washington, DC 
Lockhart Follin-Mace, Raleigh 
Charles U. Harris, Delaplane, VA 
Terry C. Hazen, Aiken, SC 
E. Michael Howlette, Richmond, VA 
Suzanne L. Jowdy, Winston-Salem 



John R. Knight, New York, NY 
Archie D. Logan, Raleigh 
Jan McDonagh, Boston, MA 
Jasper D. Memory, Chapel Hill 
Patrick J. Rice, Augusta, GA 
Marie H. Roseboro, Winston-Salem 
Norman B. Snead, Newport News, VA 
Marc S. Tucker, Rochester, NY 




A course in Museum Practicum at the Museum of Anthropology, offered through the 
anthropology department. 



226 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1992 



L. M. Baker Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte 
Connie W. Brothers, Nashville, TN 
David R. Bryant, Charleston, WV 
Josephine D. Clement, Durham 
Stanley Frank, Greensboro 
Eldridge C. Hanes, Winston-Salem 



Nancy C. Kester, Winston-Salem 
James Alfred Martin Jr., Winston-Salem 
John F. McNair III, Winston-Salem 
Edwin S. Melvin, Greensboro 
John P. Polychron, Winston-Salem 
Howard A. Rollins Jr., Atlanta, GA 
Elizabeth P. Valk, New York, NY 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 



James S. Boshart III, New York, NY 
Germaine Bre'e, Winston-Salem 
Janet H. Brown, Washington, DC 
F Hudnall Christopher Jr., 
Winston-Salem 



Henry D. Clarke Jr., New York, NY 
Roberta W Irvin, Winston-Salem 
Thomas W Lambeth, Winston-Salem 
Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 
C. Edward Pleasants, Winston-Salem 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1994 



Joyce B. Baldwin, Durham 

Robert H. Demsey, Rancho Sante Fe, CA 

David H. Diamont, Pilot Mountain 

Frank H. Dunn Jr., Charlotte 

Evelyn P. Foote, Alexandria, VA 

John D. Graham, Norfolk, VA 

Frank S. Ioppolo, Orlando, FL 



Joanne Kemp, Bethesda, MD 

Caroline L. Lattimore, Durham 

Dottie Martin, Raleigh 

A. C. Moore, Sherman, CT 

L. Richardson Preyer, Greensboro 

Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 

J. Howard Stanback, Chicago, IL 



Ex Officio Members 



A. Doyle Early Jr., President, Alumni Council, High Point 
Herbert Brenner, Trustee Liaison, Winston-Salem 



227 



School of Business and Accountancy 



Advisory Council 



Ren L. Babcock, Raleigh 

Paul J. Breitbach, Winston-Salem 

Douglas D. Brendle, Winston-Salem 

D. Hayes Clement, Greensboro 

Derrick L. Davis, Winston-Salem 

J. William Disher, Charlotte 

W. Chester Evans III, Greensboro 

Kathryn W Garner, Winston-Salem 

Emma Graham, Winston-Salem 

H. Wade Gresham, Durham 

W Eugene Johnston III, Greensboro 

John M. Kane, Raleigh 



Deborah Lambert, Washington, DC 
J. Leonard Martin, Winston-Salem 
Jack Powell, Reston, VA 
Robert N. Pulliam, Winston-Salem 
David C. Rose, Henderson 
Ernest J. Sewell, Winston-Salem 
James N. Smith, Winston-Salem 
Porter B. Thompson, Greensboro 
Robert S. Vaughan Sr., Charlotte 
Robert F. Watson, Charlotte 
William J. Wieners, Winston-Salem 
David E. Williams, Greensboro 




228 



The Administration 



Date following name indicates year of appointment 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) President 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration and Planning 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham), PE, North Carolina and Alabama 

Vice President for Health Services Administration 



Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 

MBA, Wake Forest; CPA, North Carolina 

Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, North Carolina (Charlotte); MEd, Converse 

David G. Brown (1990) 

BA, Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

Provost 

Vice President and Counsel 



Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
CPA, North Carolina 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Laura Christian Ford (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; EdM, JD, Virginia; AM, PhD, Princeton 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 
BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; 
MAR, Yale; PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University 

Vice President for University Relations 

Vice President for Financial 
Resource Management and Treasurer 

Vice President for Special Projects 



Vice President for Student Life and 
Instructional Resources 



Associate Provost 

Assistant to the President 
for Special Projects 



College 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 



Dean of the College 
Associate Dean 



229 



William S. Hamilton (1983) Associate Dean 

BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) Associate Dean 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

Graduate School 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) Acting Dean and Director of Master of Arts 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; in Liberal Studies Program 

PhD, Columbia 

School of Law 

Robert K. Walsh (1989) Dean of the School of Law 

BA, Providence; JD, Harvard 

H. Miles Foy III (1984) Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MA, Harvard; JD, Virginia 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) Associate Dean, External Affairs, 

BA, JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) and Director of Clinical Programs 

Carol B. Anderson (1985) Associate Director of Clinical Programs 

BA, JD, Duke 

Carrie C. Bullock (1987) Director of Placement 

BA, Wake Forest 

Rachel L. Hilbun (1984) Assistant Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

BA, Wake Forest 

Jean K. Hooks (1970) Director of Computer Services and Administration 

Sally A. Irvin (1984) Associate Director of Computer Services 

BA, JD, Stetson; MA, South Carolina; MLS, South Florida 

LeAnn P. Joyce (1977) Registrar 

BMu, Salem 

Jean K. Holmes (1985) Activities Coordinator 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) Director of Professional and Public Relations 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Melanie E. Nutt (1969) Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Deborah Leonard Parker (1984) Director of Legal Research 

BA, MA, North Carolina (Greensboro); JD, Wake Forest and Writing 

Ronald M. Price (1989) Assistant Director, Continuing Legal Education 

AB, Guilford; JD, Wake Forest 

Lloyd K. Rector (1984) Director of Continuing Legal Education 

BS, JD, Wake Forest 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 

John B. McKinnon (1989) Dean of the Babcock Graduate School 

AB, Duke; MBA, Harvard of Management 



230 



James G. Ptaszynski (1984) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 

MS, Shippensburg; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Associate Dean 



Jean B. Hopson (1970) 

BS, Murray State; MA in LS, George Peabody; 
MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 



Assistant Dean, Registrar, and 
Director of Babcock Library 



J. Timothy Heames (1970) Director of MBA Executive Program and 

BS, Youngstown State; MS, Carnegie-Mellon Lecturer in Management 



Peter R. Peacock (1970) 

BA, Northwestern; MS, Georgia Tech; 
MBA, PhD, Chicago 

Brooke A. Saladin (1983) 
BS, PhD, Ohio State; 
MBA, Bowling Green 

Thomas M. Brinkley (1991) 

BA, MAT, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Coleen J. Sullivan (1988) 

BA, Denison; MS, Indiana 

Patricia B. Lowder (1988) 
BS, Virginia 



Director of Evening MBA Program and 
Associate Professor of Management 

Director of Pull-Time MBA Program 
and Associate Professor of Management 

Director of Executive Education 



Director of Career Planning and Placement 



Director of External Relations 
and Publications 



Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

James N. Thompson (1979) 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Eugene W. Adcock III (1989) 

BS, Davidson; MD, Wake Forest 

John D. Tolmie (1970) 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 



William C. Park Jr. (1973) 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

B. Hofler Milam (1981) 
BS, Wake Forest 

J. Kiffin Penry (1979) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) 
BS, MS, Illinois 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University and Executive Dean 

Vice President for Health Services Administration 
and Associate Dean for Administrative Services 



Associate Dean 

Associate Dean for Professional Affairs 

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 

Assistant Dean for Clinical Services 



Assistant Dean for Planning and 
Resource Management 

Senior Associate Dean for Research Development 

Associate Dean for Research Development 

Associate Dean for Student Affairs 



231 



Michael R. Lawless (1974) Deputy Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

BA, Texas (Austin); MD, Texas Medical Branch (Galveston) 

Lewis H. Nelson III (1976) Associate Dean for Admissions 

BS, North Carolina State; MD, Wake Forest 

James C. Leist (1974) Associate Dean for Continuing Education 

BS, Southeastern Missouri State; MS, EdD, Indiana 

Paul M. LoRusso (1987) Associate Dean for Information Services 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Florida State 

J. Dennis Hoban (1978) Director of the Office of Educational Research 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana and Services 

Velma G. Watts (1983) Director of Minority Affairs 

BS, MA, North Carolina A&T; 
MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) Librarian 

BA, MSLS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) Dean of the School of Business 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); and Accountancy 

PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Michael Thompson (1990) Assistant Dean 

BA, ID, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Stephen Ewing (1971) Coordinator of Business Program 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; PhD, Texas Tech 

Dale R. Martin (1982) Coordinator of Accountancy Program 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 

Summer Session 

Lula M. Leake (1964) Dean of the Summer Session 

BA, Louisiana State; MRE, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Planning and Administration 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) Assistant Vice President for 

BS, Wake Forest; Administration and Planning 

MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Larry R. Henson (1981) Assistant Vice President for Data Services 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla); MBA, Wake Forest 

Lula M. Leake (1964) Assistant Vice President for 

BS, Louisiana State; Administration and Planning 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 



232 



James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

W. Derald Hagen (1978) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Carlos O. Holder 

BBA, MBA, Wake Forest 

James W. Kausch (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 

Carl V. Thompson (1983) 



BS, University of Kentucky; MBA, Wake Forest 



Director of Personnel 

Assistant Controller 

Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

Purchasing Coordinator 

Registrar 

Assistant Director of the Physical Plant 



C. Monroe Whitt (1986) 
MBA, Wake Forest 



Legal Department 



Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

J. Reid Morgan (1980) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Donna H. Hamilton 

AB, Drury; JD, Wake Forest 

Beth N. Hopkins (1985) 

BA, Wake Forest; JD, William and Mary 

Beverly C. Moore (1989) 

BA, Mount Holyoke; JD, Wake Forest 

Student Life 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion: JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Michael Ford (1981) 



BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; STM, Union Theological Seminary 



Director of the Physical Plant 

Vice President and Counsel 

University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 



Vice President for Student Life 
and Instructional Resources 

Dean of Student Services 
Director of Student Development 



Chaplain 



William C. Currin (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern 
Baptist Theological Seminary 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 



Director of Career Planning and Placement 



Assistant Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 



233 



Ernest M. Wade (1986) Director of Minority Affairs 

BS, Johnson C. Smith; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Michigan State 

Gloria E. Cooper (1987) Counselor for Minority Recruitment 

BA, Maryland 

Dennis Gregory (1986) Director of Residence Life and Housing 

AA, Ferrum; BA, James Madison; MA, EdD, Virginia 

Connie L. Carson (1986) Associate Director of Residence Life 

BS, MEd, North Carolina State and Housing 

Daniel J. Bertsos (1990) Associate Director of Residence Life 

BA, Central Michigan; MA, Miami University of Ohio and Housing 

Mary Ann H. Taylor (1961) Director of Student Health Service 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Natascha L. Romeo (1990) Health Educator 

BS, South Carolina 

Mary T. Beil (1985) Director of Student Union 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) Director of the University Counseling Center 

BA, Dayton; MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Sandra L. Chadwick (1989) Director, Learning Assistance Program 

BA, BS, Texas (Austin); 
MA, Columbia 

Chaplain's Office 

Edgar D. Christman (1954) Chaplain 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; STM, Union Theological Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) Assistant Chaplain and 

BA, Furman; Baptist Campus Minister 

MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Institutional Research 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) Director of Institutional Research 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) Registrar 

BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) Associate Registrar 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Susan C. Hunter (1984) Assistant Director of 

BS, Louisville Institutional Research 

Computer Center 

Larry R. Henson (1981) Director of the Computer Center 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla); MBA, Wake Forest 



234 



Casper C. Bayliff (1988) 
BA, Elon College 

D. Jean Seeman (1977) 

BA, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Georgia 

John D. Waser 



Microcomputer Center Manager 
Academic Computing Manager 
Microcomputer Technical Coordinator 



AAS Applied Electronic Technology, Forsyth Tech 

Admissions and Financial Aid 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 



William G. Starling (1958) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Martha Blevins Allman (1982) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Steven Brooks (1989) 

BA, MA, EdD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Karen B. Grogan 

BA, Randolph Macon 

Robert P. Jackson (1989) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Paul N. Orser (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Emory 

Elizabeth A. Bilyeu (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

M. Louise Brown (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Timothy M. McConnell (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Associate Director of Admissions and 
Scholarship Officer 

Associate Director of Admissions 

Associate Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Admission Counselor 

Admission Counselor 

Admission Counselor 



Career Planning and Placement 



Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 



William C. Currin (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern 
Baptist Theological Seminary 

Susan Brooks (1989) Director of Internships and 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; Experiential Learning Programs 

MAEd, Wake Forest; MBA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MDiv, Iliff School of Theology 



Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 



Assistant Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 



235 



Public Affairs 

Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, North Carolina (Charlotte); MEd, Converse 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Kevin P. Cox (1990) 

BA, East Texas State University; MA, Wake Forest 

Brian H. Eckert (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Teresa Brown Grogan (1976) 

Cherin Chewning Poovey (1987) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Bernard H. Quigley (1989) 
BA, Massachusetts 

Jim A. Steele (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

WFDD Station Manager 

Media Relations Officer 

Director of Media Relations 

Printing Services Manager 

Director of Publications 
and Associate University Editor 

Staff Writer 
Media Relations Officer 



University Relations 



G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Vice President for University Relations 

Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Development 



Robert T. Baker (1978) 

BA, MS, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Julius H. Corpening (1969) Assistant Vice President for University Relations 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Robert D. Mills (1972) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 



Minta Aycock McNally (1978) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Dorothy Bryan (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James R. Bullock (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Cathy B. Chinlund (1986) 
BS, East Carolina 

R. Kriss Dinkins (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Scott K. DuBois (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kurt B. Falkenberg (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Vincent Gaver (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Capital Campaign 

Assistant to the Vice President 
for University Relations 

Prospect Research Officer 

Director of Capital Support 

Manager of Support Services 

Director of Corporate Relations 

Assistant Director, Alumni Activities 
and Student Programs 

Planned Giving Officer 
Development Associate 



236 



John W. Gillon (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kerry M. King (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Sheila Massey (1986) 

BA, Winston-Salem State 

Sonja Harvey Murray (1990) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Joanne F. O'Brien (1989) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Katherine Rand (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Ruth DeLapp Sartin (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Director of Babcock Alumni Development 

Staff Writer 

Director of Alumni Activities 

Gift Stewardship 

Director of Reunion Programs 

Director of Foundation Relations 

Director of Planned Giving 

Alumni Activities Officer 

Director of Prospect Research 



Robert Spinks (1989) 



BA, Furman; MRE, New Orleans Baptist 
Theological Seminary; MA, Iowa 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) 

BS, East Tennessee State 

R. Bruce Thompson II (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert D. Thompson (1982) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James G. Welsh Jr. (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Director of Development for Divinity School 



Director of Records and Support Services 

Director of Law Alumni and Development 

Director of the Annual Campaign 

Director of Alumni and Student Programs 



Graylyn Conference Center 



Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) 
BS, California (Berkeley) 

Jane Rachlin (1979) 



General Manager and Director of the 
Graylyn Conference Center 



Assistant Director 



Financial Resource Management 



John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
CPA, North Carolina 



Vice President for Financial 
Resource Management and Treasurer 



Libraries 



Rhoda K. Channing (1989) Director, Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

BA, Brooklyn; MS in LS, Columbia; MBA, Boston College 



237 



Charles M. Getchell, Jr. (1986) Assistant Director, Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

BA, Tulane; MA, Mississippi; MLS, Texas 

John Via (1977) Assistant Director, Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

BA, Virginia; MS in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) Director, Law Library Services 

BA, Oklahoma State; MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) Director, Babcock Graduate School 

BS in Ed, Murray State; MS in LS, of Management Library 

George Peabody; MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library, 

BA, MS in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Athletics 

G. Eugene Hooks (1956) Director of Athletics 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
EdD, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Dianne Dailey (1988) Director of Women's Athletics 

BA, Salem; MEd, North Carolina State 

Other Administrative Offices 

Janice B. Bardsley (1989) Coordinator of Asian Studies 

BA, California (Davis); MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

James P. Barefield (1963) Coordinator of the Honors Program 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology 

BA, Harpur; MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Nicholas B. Bragg (1970) Executive Director of the Reynolda House 

BA, Wake Forest Museum of American Art 

Richard T. Clay Director of University Stores 

BBA, Wake Forest 

Julie Cole (1988) Director of Research and Sponsored Programs 

BS, MA, Appalachian 

Claudia R. Colhoun (1989) Assistant to the Vice President 

BA, Sweet Briar; MA, Wake Forest for Special Projects 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982) Coordinator of Women's Studies 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) Director of Counseling Program 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Victor Faccinto (1978) Director of the Art Gallery 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Dirk Faude (1986) Education Certification Officer/Media Coordinator 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

John E.R. Friedenberg (1988) Theatre Manager 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 



238 



Brian Gorelick (1984) Director of Choral Ensembles 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois (Leave, 1990-91) 

David W. Hadley (1966) Coordinator of London Programs 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Martin Province (1982) Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado and Director of Bands 

Richard D. Sears (1964) Director of International Studies 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Judith K. Shannon (1980) Adviser to International Students 

Martine Sherrill (1985) Curator of Slides and Prints 

BFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) Coordinator of Humanities and Director of 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke Program of Academic Support Services (PASS) 

Ross Smith (1984) Debate Coach 

BA, Wake Forest 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) Director of Theatre 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 

George William Trautwein (1983) Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BMus, Oberlin; and Director of the Secrest Artists Series 

MMus, Cleveland Institute of Music; 
MusD, Indiana 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) Director of the Tocaueville Forum 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Jody L. Walker (1986) Study Abroad Adviser (International Studies) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) Associate Director of Theatre 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



239 

The Undergraduate Faculties 

Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

John M. Aho (1988) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Exeter (England) 

Helen W. Akinc (1987) Adjunct Instructor in Business 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); (School of Business and Accountancy) 

MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) (Part-time) 

Umit Akinc (1982) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Middle East Tech. University (School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Ankara); MBA, Florida State; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Gary R. Albrecht (1987, 1990) Adjunct Associate Professor of Economics 

BA, Tulane; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana (Spanish) 

William T. Alderson (1990) Adjunct Professor of History 

AB, Colgate; MA, PhD, Vanderbilt (Spring 1991) 

Brian Allen (1977) Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London (Part-time) 

Eva M. Allen (1990) Instructor in Mathematics 

BS, Gardner-Webb; MA, Wake Forest 

Nina Stromgren Allen (1984) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wisconsin; MS, PhD, Maryland (Leave, 1990-91) 

Ralph D. Amen (1962) Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; MBS, PhD, Colorado 

Gunnar Anderson (1990) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Lawrence; MA, Northwestern; PhD, Chicago (Spanish) 

Paul R. Anderson Assistant Professor of Physics 

BS, Wisconsin (Madison); MA, PhD, 
California (Santa Barbara) 

John L. Andronica (1969) Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Maya Angelou (1982) Reynolds Professor of American Studies 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College (Chicago), 
Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake Forest, Occidental, 
Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Guy M. Arcuri (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, North Carolina State; (Spanish) 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

E. Pendleton Banks (1954) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Furman; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Sarah E. Barbour (1985) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Maryville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell (French) 



240 



Janice B. Bardsley (1989) 
BA, California (Davis); 
MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Bernadine Barnes (1989) 

BA, Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 
MA, Pittsburgh; PhD, Virginia 

Richard C. Barnett (1961) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John V. Baxley (1968) 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern Illinois 



Assistant Professor of Japanese 
(Department of Romance Languages) 

Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Art 



Robert C. Beck (1959) 
BA, PhD, Illinois 

S. Douglas Beets (1987) 

BS, Tennessee; MAcc, PhD, Virginia 
Poly. Inst, and SU 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) 
BS, MA, Wake Forest 



Professor of History 
Professor of Mathematics 
Associate Professor of Sociology 
Professor of Psychology 



Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 
(Part-time) 



Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Michael J. Berry (1985) 

BS, Jacksonville State; 

MA, Southeastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Director/Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 
and Assistant Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Health and 
Sport Science 



Professor of Psychology 



Zanna Beswick (1987) 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) 

David Bindman (1977) 

BA, MA, Oxford; PhD, Courtauld (London) 

Mary Lucy Bivins (1985) 

BA, Salem; MA, Wake Forest 

Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Stephen B. Boyd (1985) 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard Divinity School 

Debra Boyd-Buggs (1989) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Iowa; MA, Rutgers, PhD, Ohio State (French) 



Lecturer in English Dramatic Literature 
and Theatre (London) (Part-time) 

Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Adjunct Instructor in SCTA* 
(Theatre Arts) (Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Professor of Music 

Associate Professor of Religion 



*SCTA: Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 



241 



Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, Wilkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 

Robert W. Brehme (1959) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Assistant Professor of English 
Professor of Physics 



Linda Carter Brinson (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

David G. Brown (1990) 

AB, Denison; PhD, Princeton 

Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

David P. Bumgarner (1990) 
BS, Appalachian 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 



Lecturer in Journalism 
(Department of English, Part-time) 



Daniel A. Cafias (1987) 

BS, Lecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico); 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Duke 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 



Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of Politics 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 
Professor of Mathematics 



Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 
Associate Professor of Music 
Associate Professor of Psychology) 



David W. Catron (1963) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 

Sarah S. Catron (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) (Part-time) 

PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Dorothy J. Cattle (1989) 



BA, Washington; MA, PhD, New Mexico 

Jonathan Hugo Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall; 
MFA, Massachusetts 

David Cody (1990) 

BA, Tufts; MA, PhD, Brown 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Lecturer in SCTA 
(Theatre Arts) (Part-time) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



242 



John E. Collins (1970) Professor of Religion 

BS, MS, Tennessee; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; MA, PhD, Princeton 

William E. Conner (1988) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 

Jule M. Connolly (1985) Instructor in Mathematics 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MEd, South Carolina (Part-time) 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Accounting 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; (School of Business and Accountancy) 

MS, Tennessee; CPA, Arkansas 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) Professor of English 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

Allin F. Cottrell (1989) Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, Oxford (Merton College); Phd, Edinburgh 

Robert Cowles (1990) Visiting Director of Choral Ensembles 

BA, Macalester College; MM, New England 
Conservatory of Music; DM, Indiana 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) Professor of Education 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

James F. Curran (1988) Assistant Professor of Biology 

BAAS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Rice 

George B. Cvijanovich (1989) Adjunct Professor of Physics 

PhD, Bern (Switzerland) 

Dale Dagenbach (1990) Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, New College; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Mary Michel Dalton (1986) Instructor in SCTA 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Communication) 

Thomas B. Dalton III (1990) Assistant Professor of Military Science 

BS, Arizona State 

Sayeste A. Daser (1978) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Middle East Tech. University (School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Ankara); MS, Ege (Izmir); 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Huw M. L. Davies (1983) Associate Professor of Chemistry 

BSc, University College (Cardiff); PhD, East Anglia 

P. Candace Deans (1989) Assistant Professor of Business 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); (School of Business and Accountancy) 

MEd, North Carolina State; MBA, East Carolina; 
PhD, South Carolina 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Western Kentucky; and Women s Studies 

MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon (Leave, 1990-91) 



243 



James G. DeVoto (1988) 
BA, Holy Cross; 
MA, Washington University; PhD, Loyola 

Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Horida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Kevin M. Doak (1989) 

BA, Quincy College, MA, PhD, Chicago 

James H. Dodding (1979) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and 
Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theatre on the Balustrade (Prague) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classical Languages 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor of Biology 



Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and 
Assistant Professor of History 

Visiting Lecturer in SCTA 

(Theatre) 

(Spring 1991) 



Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. (1977) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, PhD, Southern 
Baptist Theological Seminary 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) 
BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 

BS, Clemson; MBA, PhD, 
South Carolina 

Yomi Durotoye (1989) 

BS, University of Ibadan; MA, Georgia State; 
PhD, Duke 

John R. Earle (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 



Professor of Sociology 



Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Adjunct Instructor in SCTA 
(Communication) (Part-time) 

C. Drew Edwards (1980) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida State (Part-time) 



Eddie V. Easley (1984) 

BS, Virginia; MS, PhD, Iowa State 

Paige Pettyjohn Edley (1990) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest 



Bashir El-Beshti (1990) 

BA, Tripoli University (Libya); 

MA, Colorado State; PhD, California (Berkeley) 



Assistant Professor of English 



Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 



Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 



Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; 
PhD, Ohio State 



Professor of Education 
(Counseling Psychology) 



244 



Gerald W. Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Paul D. Escott (1988) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Andrew V. Ettin (1977) 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; 
PhD, Colorado 

Stephen Ewing (1971) 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; 
PhD. Texas Tech 

David L. Faber (1984) 



Professor of Biology 

Reynolds Professor of History 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Education 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Art 



AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969) 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 

Richard P. Faude (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Ramiro Fernandez (1987) 

BA, Miami; MA, Middlebury College 
in Madrid; PhD, Temple 

David Finn (1988) 

BS, Cornell; MFA, Massachusetts College of Art 

James C. Fishbein (1988) 

BA, Johns Hopkins; PhD, Brandeis 

Gloria J. Fitzgibbon (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley); MA, San Francisco State (Spring 1991) 



Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 
(Leave, 1990-91) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 

Dana Paculty Fellow and 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Jack D. Fleer (1964) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Doyle R. Fosso (1964) 

AB, Harvard; MA, Michigan; PhD, Harvard 

Donald E. Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 



Professor of Politics 
(Leave, Fall 1990) 

Professor of English 

Professor of Economics 
(Leave, Spring 1991) 

Lecturer in SCTA 
(Theatre Arts) 



Mary Lusky Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 



245 



N. Ganapathisubramanian (1986) 
BS, Madura College (India); 
MSc, PhD, Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Cynthia Gentry (1988) 

BA, Frostburg State; MA, PhD, Tulane 

Graham S. Gersdorff (1989) 
BS, Toronto; MA, Emory 

J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 

Michael J. T. Gilbert (1988) 

BA, Bucknell; MA, MM, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; MA, Yale; 
PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

David M. Glass (1989) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Youngstown State; MA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia (Spanish) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Instructor in Mathematics 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of German 

Professor of English 



Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California Institute of the Arts; 
DMA, Eastman 



Wake Forest University Professor 
of Romance Languages (Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Associate Professor of Music 
(Venice, Spring 1991) 



Harold O. Goodman (1958) 
BA, MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Bobbie M. Goodnough (1987) 
BS, Winthrop; MEd, Toledo 

Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois 

Margaret C. Gregory (1990) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, Michigan 

John Marc Gulley (1991) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Wisconsin (Madison) 

David W. Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Claire Holton Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Philip S. Hammond (1990) 

BA, Gettysburg; MS, PhD, Michigan 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

Director of Choral Ensembles 
(Leave, 1990-91) 

Visiting Lecturer in Art 
(Part-time) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of SCTA 
(Theatre Arts) (Spring 1991) 

Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Russian 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



246 



Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956) 

BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

Charles Hands (1988) 

BS, Winston-Salem State 

James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Katy J. Harriger (1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Duke; PhD, Georgia 

Jack K. Harris (1990) Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, Columbia; MAT, Harvard; PhD, SUNY (Albany) 



Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of English 

Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 
Professor of Sociology 



Lucille S. Harris (1957) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 

Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Melissa Haussman (1990) 

BA, Colby; MA, Carleton (Ottawa, Canada) 

Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 
BA, California (Davis); 
MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael D. Hazen (1974) 

BA, Seattle Pacific; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Kansas 

Terry C. Hazen (1988) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Wake Forest 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Robert A. Hedin (1980) 

BA, Luther; MFA, Alaska 

Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Karen A. Henderson (1990) 

BM, Tennessee (Chattanooga); BA, Elon; 
MA, Wake Forest 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 



Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Instructor in Politics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



Associate Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Professor of Philosophy 

Poet-in-Residence 
(Department of English, Part-time) 

Professor of Chemistry 
(Leave, Fall 1990) 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 
Instructor in Mathematics 

Professor of History 



247 



Marcus B. Hester (1963) Professor of Philosophy 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

David Allen Hills (1960) Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Willie L. Hinze (1975) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 

Alix Hitchcock (1989) Visiting Instructor in Art 

BFA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, New York (Part-time) 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (1990) Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion 

BA, Wheaton; MA, PhD, Duke 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) Professor of Physics 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 

Natalie A. W. Holzwarth (1983) Associate Professor of Physics 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; PhD, Chicago 

Fred L. Horton Jr. (1970) Albritton Professor of Religion 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
BD, Union Theological Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Frederic T. Howard (1966) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke (Leave, Spring 1991) 

Pamela Howland (1989) Visiting Assistant Professor of Music 

BM, MM, Wisconsin Conservatory of Music; (Part-time) 

DMA, Eastman School of Music 

Paul F. Huck (1989) Instructor in Economics 

BS, Marquette; MBA, Washington; MA, Northwestern 

Stephen J. Huebner (1989) Adjunct Instructor in Military Science 

BA, William and Mary; MA, Central Michigan 

Michael L. Hughes (1984) Associate Professor of History 

BA, Claremont McKenna; MA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949) Professor of Accounting 

BS, MBA, Indiana; CPA, Indiana (School of Business and Accountancy) 

Carol J. Jablonski (1990) Visiting Associate Professor of SCTA 

BA, Allegheny; MA, PhD, Purdue (Communication) 

Charles F. Jackels (1977) Professor of Chemistry 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington (Part-time) 

Susan C. Jackels (1977) Professor of Chemistry 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington 

Mordecai J. Jaffe (1980) Babcock Professor of Botany 

BS, City College (New York); PhD, Cornell (Department of Biology) 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) Lecturer in English 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 



248 



David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 



Assoicate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 

Bradley T. Jones (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida 

Peter Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Jay R. Kaplan (1981) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Marios Karayannis (1990) 

BA, George Washington; MA, Virginia 

Judith W. Kay (1988) 

BA, Oberlin; MA, Pacific School of 
Religion; PhD, Graduate Theological Union 

Horace O. Kelly Jr. (1987) 
BA, Baylor 

Judy K. Kern (1987) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy III (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Declan Kiberd (1990) 

B.Litt, D Phil., Oxford University (England) 

Charles Jeffery Kinlaw (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Ellen E. Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian Technology 
(Bombay); PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Ellen R. Kovner (1989) 

BA, Long Island; MA, New York 



Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Music 



Adjunct Professor of 
Anth ropology /Psychology 

Instructor in Economics 



Assistant Professor of Religion 



Lecturer in Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Associate Professor of Politics 
(Leave, 1990-91) 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
Professor of Physics 



Visiting Professor of English 
(Fall 1990) 

Instructor in Philosophy 



Professor of Mathematics 

Professor of Art 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Instructor in English 



249 



Anna Krauth (1986) Instructor in Romance Languages 

Licence de Lettres, Licence d'Anglais, Paris III, Sorbonne; 
Maitrise de Lettres Modernes, Paris-Sorbonne; Diplome 
d'Etudes Approfondies en litterature comparee, Paris-Sorbonne 



Philip Kuberski (1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, California (Irvine) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kelly B. Kyes (1989) 



BS, South Carolina (Coastal Carolina College) 
MS, PhD, Georgia 

Randall C. Kyes (1990) 

BA, Maine; MA, Bucknell; PhD, Georgia 

Glenn M. Lail (1990) 
BA, Tennessee 

Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 

Page H. Laughlin (1987) 

BA, Virginia; MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 

Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 



Assistant Professor of English 
Professor of Biology 
Professor of Mathematics 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Adjunct Instructor in Psychology 
(Fall 1990) 

Instructor in Economics 



Associate Professor of Biology 



Assistant Professor of Art 

Assistant Professor of Economics 
(Leave, Spring 1991) 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Hyun O. Lee (1989) 

BA, Hanyang University; MS, Iowa State 
PhD, Michigan State 

Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; MA, PhD, Oregon 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 

David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, PhD, Eastman; PhD, Rochester 

Kathryn Levy (1988) 

BM, Eastman School of Music 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt; ThM, Harvard 

Thomas P. Liebschutz (1987) 
BA, MA, Rochester; 
BHL, MAHL, Hebrew Union; DMin, Boston 

John H. Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 



Visiting Assistant Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) 



Assistant Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Associate Professor of Music 
(Leave, Fall 1990) 

btstructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Education 



250 



Liu Ning (1988) 

BA, Guangxi Teachers University (China) 

John T. Llewellyn (1990) 

AB, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MA, Arkansas; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Dan S. Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union 
Theological Seminary; DMA, Eastman 

Allan D. Louden (1977, 1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana; 
PhD, Southern California 

Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Gene T. Lucas (1967, 1986) 

BA, Phillips; MA, Denver 

Mark A. Lytal (1988) 

BA, Tennessee; MA, PhD, Duke 

Vicky M. MacLean (1990) 
BS, Tulsa; MA, Duke 

Linda S. Maier (1987) 

AB, Washington; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barry G. Maine (1981) 
BA, Virginia; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Allen Mandelbaum (1989) 

BA, Yeshiva; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; 
DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 

George Eric Matthews Jr. (1979) 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Gaylord May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Jo Whitten May (1972) 
BS, Virginia; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

W. Graham May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 



Visiting Lecturer in Chinese 
(Part-time) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) 

Associate Professor of Music 
and Composer-in-Residence 

Assistant Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) 



Professor of English 

Lecturer in Mathematics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Instructor in Sociology 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of English 
(Leave, Spring 1991) 

Kenan Professor of Humanities 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(French) 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

University Professor 
(Department of Religion) 

Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 

Adjunct Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) (Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics 



251 



Assistant Professor of Education 



Leah P. McCoy (1990) 

BS, West Virginia Inst, of Tech.; MA, Maryland; 
EdD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Thomas W. McGohey (1990) 
BA, MA, Michigan State; 
MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) 
BA, Baylor; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston University; PhD, Iowa 

Stephen Philip Messier (1981) 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

Christopher Metress (1990) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, St. Mary's University; MA, PhD, Vanderbilt 



Instructor in English 



Associate Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) (Leave, 1990-91) 

Associate Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Health 
and Sport Science 



William K. Meyers (1988) 

BA, University of Washington; MA, PhD, Chicago 



Assistant Professor of History 
(Leave, Spring 1991) 



Serguei Miassoedov (1990) 

BA, PhD, Moscow State Institute 
of International Relations 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics 

(Fall 1990) 



Joseph O. Milner (1969) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, Union Theological 
Seminary; PhD, New York 



Professor of Education 
Professor of Religion 



G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem; MAEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

John P. Modica (1989) 

BA, Marquette; MA, Oklahoma 

John C. Moorhouse (1969) 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Patrick E. Moran (1989) 

BA, MA, Stanford; MA, National 
Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Carl C. Moses (1964) 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

William M. Moss (1971) 

BA, Davidson; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 



Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Military Science 

Professor of Economics 

Assistant Professor of Chinese 
(Department of Romance Languages) 

Professor of Politics 

Professor of English 

Professor of History 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 



Stephen Murphy (1987) 



BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 



(French) 



252 



Barbee C. Myers (1989) 



BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 

Rebecca Myers (1981) 
BS, MA, Ball State 



Assistant Professor of Health and Sport Science 



Instructor in Health and Sport Science 
and Director of Dance Programs 

Candelas M. Newton (1978) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh (Spanish) 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 



Professor of Education 

Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Ronald E. Noftle (1967) 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

James L. Norris III (1989) 

BS, MS (Science), MS (Statistics), North 
Carolina State; PhD, Florida State 

Juan Orbe (1987) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); (Spanish) 

MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Associate Professor of English 



Gillian Rose Overing (1979) 

BA, Lancaster (England); MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 



F. Jeanne Owen (1956) 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); 



MCS, Indiana; JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) 
BS, Wayne State; 
MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Anthony S. Parent Jr. (1989) 

BA, Loyola; MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois 



Professor of Business Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Adjunct Instructor in SCIA 
(Communication) (Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Adjunct Professor of SCTA 
(Theatre Arts) (Part-time) 



Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; PhD, Southern Illinois 



Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1988) 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Terisio Pignatti (1971) 
PhD, Padua 

Robert J. Plemmons (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Auburn 

Alton B. Pollard III (1988) 

BA, Fisk; MDiv Harvard; PhD, Duke 



Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Sociology 

Reynolds Professor of Art History (Venice) 

(Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

Assistant Professor of Religion 



253 



James T. Powell (1988) 

BA, Emory; M Phil, MA, PhD, Yale 



Gregory D. Pritchard (1968) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; PhD, Columbia 



Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 
Professor of Philosophy 



Martin R. Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Teresa Radomski (1977) 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

Bill B. Raines (1989) 

BA, Valdosta State; MA, Utah 

Patricia H. Reavis (1989) 

BS, Texas; MA, Appalachian 

Mary Lynn B. Redmond (1989) 

BA, EdD, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Don Reeves (1967) 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; EdD, Columbia 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Paul M. Ribisl (1973) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 

Stephen H. Richardson (1963) 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 

Charles L. Richman (1968) 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

Randall G. Rogan (1990) 

BA, St. John Fisher College; 
MS, PhD, Michigan State 



Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

Assistant Professor of Music 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Instructor in Education 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Education 



Professor of Education 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 
(Leave, Spring 1991) 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Education 



Lecturer in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of SCTA 
(Communication) 



Lynette Rothe (1991) 

BA, Boston College; MA, Duke 

Andrea F. Rowland (1988) 

BA, James Madison; MA, PhD, Virginia 

William Rowland (1988) 

BA, Bucknell; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Henry W. Russell (1989) 

BA, Princeton; MA, South Carolina 



Instructor in English 
Visiting Assistant Professor of English 
Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Instructor in English 



254 



Wilmer D. Sanders (1954, 1964) 

BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Peter Santago (1989) 

BS, VPI, PhD, North Carolina State 



Professor of German 
Assistant Professor of Physics 



Jennifer Sault (1984) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Italian) (Part-time) 

James Ralph Scales (1967) Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broadus, Duke 



William E. Schmickle (1991) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, Duke; 
MLitt., Glasgow (Scotland) 

Donald O. Schoonmaker (1965) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Katie Scott (1985) 

BA Hons., London 



Visiting Associate Professor of Politics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Politics 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

and Lecturer in Education 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 

(Part-time) 



Welton O. Seal Jr. (1991) 
BA, Louisiana State; 
MDiv, Duke; MPhil, PhD, Union Theological Seminary 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion 
(Part-time, Spring 1991) 



Richard D. Sears (1964) 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 



Timothy F. Sellner (1970) 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan 

Michael Selmon (1988) 

AB, MS, Miami of Ohio; MA, PhD, Maryland 



Professor of Politics 

Professor of German 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Catherine E. Seta (1987) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Mark S. Sexton (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Dudley Shapere (1984) 

BA, MA, PhD, Harvard 



Bynum G. Shaw (1965) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kurt C. Shaw (1987) 

AB, Missouri; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Walter W. Shaw (1987) 

BA, Berea; MA, Georgia 



Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 

History of Science 

(Leave, Spring 1991) 

Professor of Journalism 
(Department of English) 

Assistant Professor of German and Russian 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



255 



Howard W. Shields (1958) 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 

Carol A. Shively (1988) 

BA, Hiram; MA, PhD, California (Davis) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 



Professor of Physics 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of English 



Gale Sigal (1987) 

BA, City College (New York); 

MA, Fordham; PhD, CUNY (Graduate Center) 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Florida State 

Ellen L. Simms (1989) 

BA, MA, California (Santa Barbara); PhD, Duke 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

Yuri Slezkine (1989) 

MA, University of Moscow; PhD, Texas 

David L. Smiley (1950) 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

Alison T. Smith (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B. Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin-Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Wesley E. Snyder (1990) 

BS, North Carolina State; MS, PhD, Illinois 



Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; PhD, Brown 

Cecilia H. Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Loraine Moses Stewart 

BA, MA, North Carolina Central 



Assistant Professor of English 
(Leave, Spring 1991) 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 
Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of History 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Professor of Computer Science 

Professor of Art 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time, Spring 1991) 

Lecturer in Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



DeLeon E. Stokes (1982) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Michigan; 
CPA, North Carolina 

David H. Stroupe (1990) Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Anna-Vera Sullam (1972) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Padua (Italian) (Part-time, Venice) 



256 



Charles H. Talbert (1963) Wake Forest Professor of Religion 

BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist (Leave, Spring 1991) 

Theological Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Ian M. Taplin (1985) Assistant Professor of Sociology 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); 
BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester (England); PhD, Brown 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) Professor of Accounting 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); (School of Business and Accountancy) 

PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) Professor of SCTA 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State (Theatre Arts) 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Minnesota 

Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Notre Dame; MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis (Leave, Spring 1991) 

Olive S. Thomas (1978) Lecturer in Accounting 

BS, Wake Forest; MBA, North (School of Business and Accountancy) 

Carolina (Greensboro); CPA, North Carolina 

Stan J. Thomas (1983) Associate Professor of Computer Science 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt 

C. Michael Thompson (1991) Lecturer in Law 

BA, JD, North Carolina (School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Chapel Hill) 

Harry B. Titus Jr. (1981) Associate Professor of Art 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); MFA, PhD, Princeton 

Patricia W. Toole (1990) Adjunct Lecturer in SCTA 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest (Theatre Arts) (Director of Theatre Speech) 

Todd C. Torgersen (1989) Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 

BS, MS, Syracuse; PhD, Delaware Professor of Computer Science 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) Associate Professor of Accounting 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Chapel Hill); MBA, Cornell 

Florence Toy (1988) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Michigan (French) (Part-time, Spring 1991) 

George William Trautwein (1983) Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland Institute; 
MusD, Indiana 

Robert W. Ulery Jr. (1971) Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) Associate Professor of Humanities 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 

BA, MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan Professor of Romance Languages 

(Italian) (Leave, Spring 1991) 



257 



Professor of Mathematics 
Professor of Economics 



Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) 

BA, Hampden-Sydney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964) 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; PhD, Virginia 

Susan B. Wallace (1986) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Howard; MA, Boston University; PhD, Pittsburgh (Part-time) 

C. Anne Wallen (1989) Adjunct Associate Professor of Physics 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); PhD, Rochester 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; MA, PhD, Oklahoma 

Lecturer in SCTA 
(Theatre Arts) (Part-time) 



Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 

Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 



Professor of Anthropology 
Professor of Biology 



Kari Weil (1985) 

BA, Cornell; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David P. Weinstein (1989) 

BA, Colorado College; MA, Connecticut; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mark E. Welker (1987) 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 



BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Honda State 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Byron R. Wells (1981) 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia 

Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

M. Stanley Whitley (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Cornell 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 
BS, Bob Jones University; 
PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Alan J. Williams (1974) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

George P. Williams Jr. (1958) 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John E. Williams (1959) 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Frank M. Williamson (1989) 

BA, Newberry; MEd, South Carolina 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(French) (Dijon, Fall 1990) 

Professor of German 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanich) 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of History 

Professor of Physics 

Professor of Psychology 

Reynolds Professor of Physics 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 



258 



David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Professor of SCTA 
(Theatre Arts) (London, Spring 1991) 



Frank B. Wood (1971) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MDiv, South- 
eastern Baptist Theological Seminary; PhD, Duke 

John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

Ralph C. Wood Jr. (1971) 

BA, MA, East Texas State; MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Beverly Wright (1989) 

BA, Grambling State; MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 



Raymond L. Wyatt (1956) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Carol Zinn (1988) 

BS, Chestnut Hill; MA, St. Bonaventure 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 



Reynolds Professor of Economics 

Easley Professor of Religion 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Biology 



Instructor in Religion 
(Part-time) 

Professor of History 



259 

EMERITI 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 

Charles M. Allen (1941-1989) Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

John William Angell (1955-1990) Easley Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton 

Bianca Artom (1975-1990) Lecturer Emerita in Romance Languages 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964-1989) Director of Libraries Emeritus 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Germaine Bree (1973-1985) Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, Mount Holyoke, 
Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, 
Brown, Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the South, 
Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, Colby, Michigan, 
Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 

Dalma Adolph Brown (1941-1973) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Shasta M. Bryant (1966-1987) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) Professor Emerita of Spanish 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) Professor Emeritus of Management 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949-1988) Associate Professor Emerita of Health 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro) and Sports Science 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Cyclone Covey (1968-1988) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, PhD, Stanford 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) Associate Professor Emerita 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody of Physical Education 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) Professor Emeritus of Law 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; JD, Emory; 
LLM, SJD, Michigan 

Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 



260 



J. Allen Easley (1928-1963) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Furman; ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; DD, Furman 

Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; ScD, Bridgewater 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962-1988) Professor Emeritus of German 

BA, Boston University; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Illinois 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969-1990) Lecturer Emerita in SCTA 

BA, Rollins; MEA, Texas Christian (Theatre Arts) 

Ivey C. Gentry (1949-1989) Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christopher Giles (1951-1988) Associate Professor Emeritus of Music 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 

Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960-1990) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, MA, PhD, Bombay and Asian Studies 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 

George J. Griffin (1948-1981) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary; BD, Yale; PhD, Edinburgh 

Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959-1987) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952-1988) Albritton Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Carl V. Harris (1956-1989) Professor Emeritus of Classical Languages 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Lois Johnson (1942-1962) Dean of Women Emerita 

BA, Meredith; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Robert E. Lee (1946-1977) Professor Emeritus of Law and 

BS, LLD, Wake Forest; Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Jasper L. Memory Jr. (1929-1971)* Professor Emeritus of Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Columbia 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

*Died on March 20, 1991 



261 



John W. Nowell (1945-1987) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

James C. O'Flaherty (1947-1984) Professor Emeritus of German 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

A. Thomas Olive (1961-1988) Associate Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, North Carolina State 



John E. Parker, Jr. (1950-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957-1989) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Lee Harris Potter (1965-1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 



Professor Emeritus of Education 
and Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Professor Emerita of English 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Education 



Mark H. Reece (1956-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Mary Frances Robinson (1952-1989) 
BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) 



BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 



Associate Professor Emerita of English 

Dean of Students Emeritus 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 

Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Music 



John W. Sawyer Jr. (1956-1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus; LLD, Duke 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

President Emeritus 



Ben M. Seelbinder (1959-1988) 
BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) 

BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Virginia 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 
Associate Professor Emerita of Linguistics 



262 



Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; 
PhD, Northwestern 



Professor Emeritus of History 
Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 



Lowell R. Tillett (1956-1989) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Carlton P. West (1928-1975) 

BA, Boston; MA, Yale; BA in LS, North Carolina 
(Chapel Hill) 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945-1988) 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, North Carolina 
(Chapel Hill) 



Professor Emeritus of History 



Librarian Emeritus 



Professor Emeritus of History 




The Olin Physical Laboratory houses the physics department and a significantly enlarged 
laser physics lab. 



263 

The Committees of the Faculty 

September 1, 1990 

The terms of members, except where otherwise shown, expire on August 31 of the 
year indicated. Each committee selects its own chair except where the chair is 
designated. 



Executive Committees 

The Committee on Academic Affairs 

Non-voting. Dean of student services, associate deans of the College, and one under- 
graduate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 1994 John E. Collins, Dolly A. McPher- 
son; 1993 Robert W. Brehme, Claudia N. Thomas; 1992 David W. Catron, Byron R. 
Wells; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admissions 

Non-voting. Director of admissions, two members from the administrative staff of the 
Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of 
the College; 1994 Michael J. Berry, David W. Catron; 1993 Carole L. Browne, George 
M. Holzwarth; 1992 Ralph C. Kennedy III, Donald H. Wolfe; and one undergradu- 
ate student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 

Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of 
admissions and financial aid, two members from the administrative staff of the Office 
of the Dean of the College; 1994 Barry G. Maine, Alton B. Pollard; 1993 David W 
Hadley, Kari Weil; 1992 Stephen Ewing, Jill J. McMillan; and one undergraduate 
student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 

Voting. Provost, dean of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountan- 
cy, registrar, and the chairperson of each department of the College as follows: Division 
I. Art, Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Music, Romance Lan- 
guages, Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. Division II. Biology, Chemistry, 
Health and Sport Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, Physics. Division III. 
Education, History, Military Science, Philosophy, Religion. Division IV. Anthropolo- 
gy, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology. For aclministrative purposes, the School 
of Business and Accountancy is included in Division IV. 



264 



Advisory Committees 

The Committee on Academic Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one un- 
dergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library, one undergraduate student, and 1995 Judith W. Kay, Ian M. Taplin; 1994 Roger 
A. Hegstrom, MiloradR. Margitic; 1993 Alan J. Williams, Cecilia Solano; 1992 Teresa 
Radomski, Natalie Holzwarth. 

The Committee on Athletics 

Non-voting. Director of athletics. Voting. Vice president and treasurer, dean of the 
College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Conference; and 1996 Eddie V. 
Easley, Sarah L. Watts; 1995 Ronald V. Dimock, Howard W Shields; 1994 Robert Knott, 
Ronald E. Noftle; 1993 Richard D. Carmichael, Robert N. Shorter; 1992 J. Daniel Ham- 
mond, George E. Matthews Jr. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, vice president and treasurer, vice president for administration 
and planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, dean 
of the School of Business and Accountancy, one undergraduate student; and 1995 
Marcus B. Hester, Beverly Wright, Dale R. Martin; 1994 James Kuzmanovich, Robert 
W. Ulery Jr.; 1993 Patricia M. Cunningham, H. Kenneth Bechtel; 1992 Harry B. Titus 
Jr., Fredric T. Howard. 

The Committee on Nominations 

Voting. 1994 Gillian R. Overing, Charles H. Talbert; 1993 Deborah L. Best, Peter D. 
Weigl; 1992 Margaret S. Smith, Marcellus Waddill, Thomas Goho. 

The Committee on Library Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from 
the Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. One 
faculty representative from each academic department of the College, Dean of the 
College, one faculty representative from the School of Business and Accountancy, 
the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, and one undergraduate student. 

Special Committees 

The Committee on Publications 

Voting. Dean of the College, vice president and treasurer, university editor, three faculty 
advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the Howler; and 1994 Andrew V Ettin; 
1993 Paul Escott; 1992 Gillian R. Overing. 



265 



The Committee for Teacher Education 

Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the Graduate School, chairperson of the Depart- 
ment of Education; and 1994 David L. Faber, Stephen P. Messier; 1993 Mary Friedman, 
Ralph Wood; 1992 John V. Baxley, David L. Smiley. 

The Committee on Honors 

Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the coordina- 
tor of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1995 George E. 
Matthews Jr.; 1994 Perry L. Patterson; 1993 Timothy F. Sellner; 1992 Ralph C. Kennedy. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the lower division advisers, and members of the 
faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the lower division advisers, who shall serve as 
chairperson, dean of students, a designated member of the administrative staff, presi- 
dent of the Student Government or a representative, and other persons from the 
administration and student body whom the chair shall invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 

Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, archivist, who shall be secretary; 
vice-chairperson of the faculty, secretary of the faculty, and 1994 Todd Torgensen; 
1993 Dolly McPherson; 1992 Gene Lucas. 

The Committee on Open Curriculum 

Dean of the College, 1995 Antonio Vitti, John C. Moorhouse; 1994 John V. Baxley 
Robert H. Evans; 1993 Mary DeShazer, Ian M. Taplin; 1992 Wayne L. Silver, Sarah 
L. Watts. 

The Committee for the ROTC 

Voting. Dean of the College, ROTC coordinator, professor of military science; and 1994 
William L. Hottinger; 1993 Leo Ellison; 1992 Stan J. Thomas. 



Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 

Dean of the College, director of admissions and financial aid, provost, and three faculty 
members of the Committee on Admissions. 



266 



The Judicial Council 

Administration. 1995 Patricia Johansson; 1992 Kenneth A. Zick. Alternate. 1995 Toby 
A. Hale. Faculty. 1996 Fred L. Horton Jr.; 1995 Candelas Newton; 1994 Stewart Carter; 
1993 John R. Earle; 1992 Eddie V. Easley; Alternate. 1994 Leonard Roberge; 1992 Katy 
Harriger; two students from the College and one student alternate. 

The Committee on Student Life 

Dean of the College or his designate, dean of students, a designated member of the 
administration; 1994 Stephen B. Boyd; 1993 Mark Leary; 1992 Dale R. Martin; and 
three undergraduate students. 



Other Faculty Assignments 

Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1993 Samuel T. Gladding; 1992 James T. Powell; 1991 David B. Levy 

Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

1993 S. Douglas Beets; 1992 Kathy B. Smith; 1991 John H. Litcher 

Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, 
Carlton T. Mitchell, Catherine T. Harris 

University Senate 

President, provost, vice president for administration and planning, vice president 
for public affairs, vice president and counsel, executive vice president for health affairs 
of Wake Forest University and executive dean of the Bowman Gray School of Medi- 
cine, vice president for university relations, vice president for financial resource 
management and treasurer, vice president for student life and instructional resources, 
dean of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, dean of the 
Graduate School, dean of the School of Law, dean of the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management, director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, and the following: 
Representatives of the College: 1995 Nancy J. Cotton, Claire H. Hammond, Donald 
Schoonmaker; 1994 Donald E. Frey, Jill J. McMillan, Hary B. Titus Jr.; 1993 Raymond 
E. Kuhn, Gillian R. Overing, Walter J. Rejeski; 1992 John L. Andronica, Kathleen 
M. Glenn, Susan Jackels. 

Representatives of the School of Business and Accountancy: 1993 John S. Dunkelberg; 1992 
Sayeste A. Daser. 
Representatives of the Graduate School: 1993 Huw Davies; 1992 David Weaver. 



267 



Representatives of the School of Law: 1993 Thomas E. Roberts; 1992 J. Wilson Parker. 
Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1993 Robert W. Shively. 
Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine: 1993 Inglis J. Miller Jr.; 1992 Jack 
W. Strandhoy. 

Institutional Review Board 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs, University Counsel (consultant), and 
1994 Robert C. Beck, Mary Jane Berman, Terry D. Blumenthal, Fred L. Horton Jr., 
Jack Rejeski; 1992 Daniel Frankel, Robert Jones, Ellen L. Simms. 





268 



Index 



Academic Awards and 

Competitions, 26 
Academic Calendar, 2, 38 
Accountancy, 199 
Accreditation, 13 
Administration, 228 
Admission Deposit, 34, 35 
Admission Requirements, 33 
Advanced Placement, 35 
Advising, 38 
Advisory Council, School of 

Business and Accountancy, 227 
Anthropology, 75 
Application for Admission, 33 
Applied Music, 145 
Applied Music Fees, 37 
AROTC, 28, 138 
AROTC Graduates, 217 
Art, 78 

Art History, 79 
Artists Series, Secrest, 30 
Asian Studies, 82 
Athletic Awards, 28 
Athletic Scholarships, 28 
Athletics, 27 

Attendance Requirement, 39 
Auditing Courses, 40 
Babcock Graduate School of 

Management, 8 
Basic Course Requirements, 66 
Biology, 84 

Board of Trustees, 223 
Board of Visitors, 225 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 8 
Buildings and Grounds, 9 
Business, 196 

Business and Accountancy, 8, 193 
Calendar, 2 
Campus Ministry, 28 
Career Planning and Placement, 30 
Carswell Scholarships, 47 
Case Referral Panel, 24 
Charges, 36-37 



Chemistry, 90 

China, Study in, 63 

Chinese, 179 

Class Attendance, 39 

Classical Languages, 92 

Classics, 95 

Classification, 39 

CLEP, 35 

Clubs, 26 

College History and Development, 17 

Combined Degrees, 72 

Committees of the Faculty, 263 

Communication, 187 

Competitions, 26 

Computer Center, 10 

Computer Science, 132, 134 

Concessions, 59 

Counseling Center, 30 

Course Numbers, 75 

Course Repetition, 42 

Courses of Instruction, 75 

Cultural Activities, 29 

Dance, 116 

Dean's List, 42 

Debate, 29 

Degree Requirements, 65 

Degrees Conferred, 206 

Degrees Offered, 65 

Dentistry Degree, 73 

Dijon Semester (University of 

Burgundy), 63, 175 
Divisional Course Requirements, 66 
Double Majors, 69 
Dropping a Course, 40 
Early Decision, 34 
East European Studies, 71 
Economics, 96 
Education, 100 
Educational Planning, 30 
Emeriti, 259 
Engineering Degree, 74 
English, 107 
English, Proficiency in the Use of, 67 



269 



Enrollment, 220 

Examinations, 41 

Exchange Scholarships, 58 

Expenses, 35 

Experiment in International Living, 64 

Faculties, Undergraduate, 239 

Fees, 35 

Federal Financial Aid Programs, 56 

Fields of Study, 65 

Financial Aid, 46 

Food Services, 36 

Foreign Area Studies, 62, 71 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Degree, 74 
Fraternities, 25 
French, 172 

French Semester, 63, 175 
General Requirements, 65 
Geographic Distribution, 221 
German, 112 
German Studies, 71 
Grade Reports, 42 
Grading, 41 
Graduate School, 8 
Graduation Distinctions, 42 
Greek, 93 

Handicapped Students, Admission of, 34 
Hankins Scholarships, 47 
Health and Sport Science, 115 
Health and Sport Science 

Requirement, 67, 116 
Health Education Program, 31 
Health Service, 31 
Hebrew, 171 
History, 120 

History and Development, WFU, 17 
Honor Council, 24 
Honor Societies, 26, 218 
Honor System, 23 
Honors Study, 61 
Housing, 38 
Humanities, 126 
Incomplete Grades, 41 
Institute of European Studies, 63 
Intercollegiate Athletics, 28 



Interdisciplinary Honors, 130 

Interdisciplinary Minors, 70 

Interfraternity Council, 25 

International Studies, 62 

International Study, Office of, 62 

Intersociety Council, 25 

Intramural Athletics, 27 

Italian, 180 

Italian Studies, 71 

Japan, Study in, 64 

Japanese, 83, 181 

Joint Majors, 69 

Journalism, 108 

Judicial Council, 24 

Latin, 94 

Latin American Studies, 72 

Law School, 8 

Learning Assistance Program, 31 

Libraries, 12 

Linguistics, 129 

Loans, 58 

London Semester, 62 

Major Requirements, Options, 69 

Majors, 68 

Management School, 8 

Mathematical Economics, 97, 133 

Mathematics, 132, 135 

Maximum Number of Courses, 69 

Medical School, 8 

Medical Technology, Combined 

Degrees, 72 
Microbiology Degree, 73 
Military Science, 138 
Ministerial Concessions, 60 
Minor in Cultural Resource 

Preservation, 70 
Minor in International Studies, 70 
Minor in Women's Studies, 70 
Minority Affairs, Office of, 31 
Minors, 69 

Mortar Board, 26, 218 
Music, 140 

Music Education, 143 
Music Ensemble, 144 
Music History, 142 



270 



Music Theory, 141 

Natural Sciences, 147 

North Carolina Student Incentive 

Grants, 53 
Omicron Delta Kappa, 26, 218 
Open Curriculum, 61 
Orientation, 38 
Overseas Courses, 201 
Part-Time Students, 39 
Pass/Fail Grades, 41 
Pell Grants, 57 
Phi Beta Kappa, 26, 219 
Philosophy, 148 
Physician Assistant Program 

Degree, 73 
Physics, 151 
Placement Service, 30 
Politics, 154 
Portuguese, 181 
Probation, 42 
Procedures, 33 
Professional Fraternities, 26 
Professional Schools, 8 
Psychological Services, 30 
Psychology, 160 
Publications, 29 
Purpose, Statement of, 15 
Radio Stations, 29 
Readmission Requirements, 44 
Recognition, 13 
Refunds, 37 
Registration, 38 
Religion, 164 
Religious Activities, 28 
Repetition of Courses, 42 
Requirements for Continuation, 43 
Requirements for Degrees, 65 
Requirements for Readmission, 44 
Residence Hall Charges, 36, 38 
Resident Student Association, 25 
Residential Language Centers, 62 
Reynolds Scholarships, 46 
Romance Languages, 171 
Room Charges, 36 
Russian, 114 



Salamanca Semester, 63, 178 
Salem College, Study at, 61 
Scholarships, 46 
School of Business and 

Accountancy, 193 
School of Business and Accountancy 

Advisory Council, 227 
School of Law, 8 
Secrest Artists Series, 30 
Senior Testing, 72 
Societies, Social, 25 
Sociology, 182 
Spanish, 176 

Spanish Semester, 63, 178 
Spanish Studies, 72 
Special Programs, 61 
Speech Communication and 

Theatre Arts, 186 
Student/Student Spouse 

Employment, 60 
Student Government, 23 
Student Health Service, 31 
Student Judicial Board, 24 
Student Legislature, 23 
Student Life, 23 
Student Publications, 29 
Student Union, 25 
Studio Art, 81 

Study Abroad Opportunities, 62 
Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest 

Programs, 64 
Summer Session, 44 
Summer Study Elsewhere, 44 
Teaching Area Requirements, 102 
Theatre Arts, 190 
Transcripts, 42 
Transfer Credit, 35, 45 
Transfer Students, Admission of, 35 
Trustees, 223 
Tuition, 36 

Undergraduate Faculties, 239 
Undergraduate Schools, 14 
University, 8 
USSR, Study in, 64 
Vehicle Registration, 37 



271 



Venice Semester, 63, 181 
Veterans Benefits, 60 
Visitors, Board of, 225 
Wake Forest College, 15 
WAKE Radio (FM), 29 



WFDD (FM), 29 

Withdrawal from the College, 40 

Women's Studies, 70 

Work/ Study Program, 57 




Bulletins of Wake Forest University 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Box 7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

Box 7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

Box 7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5437 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

Box 7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5422 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Medical Center Blvd. 

Winston-Salem, NC 27157 

(919) 748-4265 

The Summer Session 

Dean of the Summer Session 

Box 7293 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

(919) 759-5664 

The undergraduate bulletin is published by the University Editor's Office, 
Room 222 Reynolda Hall, Reynolda Campus. Adele LaBrecque, bulletin 
editor. Telephone: (919) 759-5960 



Wake Forest administers all educational and employment activities without discrimination 
because of race, color, religion, national origin, age, handicap, or sex, except where exempt. 




Director of Admissions 
Wake Forest University 
Box 7305 Reynolda Station 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 



Second Class Postage Paid 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

USPS 078-320 



WAKE FOREST 



UNIVERSITY